博碩士論文 994204022 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:14 、訪客IP:54.226.41.91
姓名 黃亦莙(Yi-Chun Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 物聯網時代隱私權問題探討 以平衡科技發展與個人資料保護為中心
(Information Privacy in the IoT Era Challenges and Preliminary Policy Suggestions)
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摘要(中) 隱私權為人的基本權利,在科技進步快速的發展下,隱私權的保護範疇與時俱進地受到關注,現今網際網路已相當普遍,電腦、智慧型手機皆是人們習以為常的上網工具,人際交流也比從前更加頻繁並在網路上留下活動的蹤跡,促成網路上充斥著大量個人資料,近年物聯網裝置已悄悄踏入人們的生活,大數據分析技術使物聯網裝置發揮更好的效用,除了一般個人資料外,個人敏感性資料也可輕易地在人無察覺下提供,物聯網時代的來臨讓科技產品帶來便利性,同時也暴露了個人的私密事物,隱私權與科技發展之間存在難以平衡的緊張關係。
在大數據環境發展下的物聯網時代將有特徵分析普遍化、資料保護安全疑慮、個人資料自主控制力低、大量敏感性個人資料流竄等資訊隱私權問題,本文試圖以物聯網之特性,探討傳統隱私權保護原則在物聯網時代適用的困境,衡量科技發展與隱私權保護,提出「從設計階段保護隱私」與「個人資料自主控制之落實」之初步方針性建議,從科技產品或服務的設計階段做好「隱私衝擊評估」並將「資料最小化原則」、「目的限制原則」、「資料安全維護原則」納入其中,鼓勵企業時時更新實行強健的匿名化技術處理個人資料,以調和在物聯網時代下「資料最小化原則」、「目的限制原則」在適用上的困難,並藉由「個人資料自主控制之落實」建立個人資料蒐集、處理與利用過程的透明度,以簡化「告知」與「選擇」之方式使個人得以控制個人資料的流向,且賦予個人「特徵分析」適用之拒絕權,避免企業的匿名化技術不足對個人隱私造成難以承擔的衝擊。
摘要(英)
In these times of rapid development of scientific and technological progress, the concern of protection of information privacy is very important today. With devices such as computers and smart phones with which people use to browse the internet becoming much more common and assessable, interpersonal communication has also become more frequent than ever before. In recent years, “Internet of Things”(IoT) have quietly impacted people’s lives. It leaves traces of activities resulting in large amount of personal information on the internet. Big data analysis technology allows for development of increasingly convenient devices. With the advent of the IoT, sensitive personal information can be readily accessed often without notice. It brings the convenience of technology products, but also exposes privacy. This results in a strong tension between privacy and technology development.
In the era of the IoT and the development of big data, there are information privacy issues such as data protection security concerns, low personal data autonomy, large numbers of sensitive personal information flow. This article attempts to discuss the principle of privacy protection in regard to the dilemma of the development of science and technology and privacy protection. To put forward ”privacy by design” and ”control of personal data” preliminary suggestions to encourage the implementation of a stronger anonymization techniques by enterprises to process personal information. From the design phase of technology products or services, enterprises should incorporate “privacy impact assessment” and the implementation of principles of traditional privacy protection such as ”data minimization principle”, ”purpose limitation principle”, and ” security safeguards principle”.
Through the implementation of a robust personal data autonomy control, enterprises may alleviate the limitations of the principles of ”data minimization” and ”purpose limitation” and establish the transparency of the collection, processing and utilization of personal data. To inform and enable individuals to choose to participate in System flows of personal data, and empower individuals ”feature analysis” applicable right of refusal, to avoid the impact on personal privacy due to the insufficiency of anonymization techniques provided by enterprises.
關鍵字(中) ★ 物聯網
★ 智慧聯網
★ 大數據
★ 巨量資料
★ 隱私
★ 個人資料
★ 特徵分析
★ 匿名化
關鍵字(英)
論文目次
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 ix
1 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與問題意識 1
1.2 研究方法與限制 2
1.3 研究架構 3
2 隱私權之發展 4
2.1 國外隱私權保護之發展 4
2.1.1 美國隱私權保護之發展 4
2.1.2 經濟發展組織所發展之資訊隱私權保護 10
2.1.3 歐盟所發展之資訊隱私權保護 12
2.2 我國隱私權之相關法律規定 13
2.2.1 我國憲法之隱私權保護範疇 13
2.2.2 我國民法、刑法之隱私權規定及實務見解 15
2.2.3 我國之個人資料保護法 16
2.3 科技環境對資訊隱私之衝擊 17
3 物聯網引發之資訊隱私權保護問題 22
3.1 物聯網發展沿革 22
3.1.1 物聯網之概念 22
3.1.2 物聯網之架構 24
3.2 物聯網之應用 26
3.3 物聯網時代隱私權問題 35
3.3.1 物聯網之推手-大數據 36
3.3.2 物聯網裝置本身對隱私權的挑戰 53
4 物聯網時代對隱私權法制之衝擊 66
4.1 隱私權保護原則在物聯網時代適用上之困難 66
4.1.1 告知(Notice)與選擇(Choice) 66
4.1.2 資料最小化原則(Data minimization Principle) 70
4.1.3 目的限制原則 (Purpose Limitation Principle) 74
4.1.4 資料品質原則 (Data Quality Principle) 78
4.1.5 安全維護原則(Security Safeguards Principle) 80
4.1.6 公開透明原則(Openness Principle) 82
4.1.7 個人參與原則(Individual Participation Principle) 85
4.2 物聯網時代之個人資料定義再思考 88
4.2.1 個人資料之定義 88
4.2.2 主要去識別方式-匿名(Anonymization)與假名(Pseudonymization) 91
4.2.3 物聯網時代之個人資料於資料保護規範之適用 93
5 物聯網時代平衡科技發展與隱私權保護可能的方式 95
5.1 從設計階段保護隱私(PRIVACY BY DESIGN) 96
5.1.1 資料最小化(data minimization)與目的限制(purpose limitation) 98
5.1.2 資料安全保護措施 101
5.1.3 隱私衝擊評估(Privacy impact Assessments, PIA) 104
5.2 個人資料自主控制之落實 108
5.2.1 「告知」與「選擇」之簡化與「透明化」之建立 108
5.2.2 特徵分析(Profiling)適用之拒絕權與資料可攜帶的權利 112
6 結論 119
參考文獻 123
參考文獻
參考文獻
1. 中文文獻
1.1書籍
JEREMY RIFKIN著,陳儀、陳琇玲譯,《物聯網革命》(THE ZERO MARGINAL COST SOCIETY),初版,商周出版,2014年。
1.2期刊與專書論文
王明禮,〈論資訊隱私:科技與商業發展脈絡下的觀察〉,《中原財經法學》,第32期,2014年6月。
李沛宸,〈行動應用程式開發實務建議-從加拿大APP開發隱私實作出發〉,《科技法律透析》,第27卷第3期,2015年3月。
孫鈺婷,〈歐美跨境資料傳輸新框架-從歐美安全港協議無效談起〉,《科技法律透析》, 第28卷第7期,2016年7月。
徐彪豪,〈物聯網時代的資料保護防線-以歐盟GDPR為中心〉,《科技法律透析》,28卷10期,2016年10月。
梁震,〈物聯網對台灣保險業的啟示〉,《保險專刊》,第31卷第2期,2015年 6月。
莊晏詞、游彥城,〈淺談行動健康與巨量資料的應用〉,《科技法律透析》,第27卷第10期,2015年10月。
楊智傑,〈美國醫療資訊保護法規之初探-以HIPAA/HITECH之隱私歸責與資安規則為中心〉,《軍法專刊》,第60卷第5期,2014年10月。
劉靜怡,〈社群網路時代的隱私困境:以Facebook為討論對象〉,《臺大法學論叢》,第41卷第1期,2012年3月。
劉靜怡,〈網際網路時代的資訊使用與隱私權保護規範:個人、政府與市場的拔河〉,《資訊管理研究》,第4卷第3期,2002年11月。

1.3 判決書
最高法院93年台上字第1979號民事判決。
最高法院99年台抗字第273號民事裁定。
最高法院101年台抗字第878號民事裁定。
1.4研究報告
范姜真微、劉定基、李寧修,〈歐盟及日本個人資料保護立法最新發展之分析報告〉,法務部委託研究案,2016年。
1.5學位論文
熊愛卿,〈網際網路個人資料保護之研究〉,國立臺灣大學法律學研究所博士論文,2000年。
1.6網路資源
行政院科技會報,<行政院生產力 4.0 發展方案>,2015年9月,取自http://www.bost.ey.gov.tw/cp.aspx?n=94090FED75EFA410 (最後瀏覽日:2017年 8月8日)。
行政院數位國家創新經濟發展推動小組,<政府雲/開放資料>,取自:http://www.digi.ey.gov.tw/cp.aspx?n=01E05E173EFAE297&s=6BEAz6E0C5AF27985 (最後瀏覽日:2017年 8月8日)。
李建興,〈高公局分析90億筆大資料預測高速公路何時塞車〉,《iThome電腦周刊》,取自: http://www.ithome.com.tw/article/98069 ( 最後瀏覽日:2017年6月30日)。
林潔禎,〈國內首張UBI車險來了:行駛里程做為保費計價基礎 開愈少省愈多〉,蘋果日報,2016年5月4日,取自:http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/finance/20160504/37195347/。
陳文義 ,〈美國大學遭到DDoS攻擊,「凶手」竟然是校內的自動販賣機、路燈〉,iThome電週文化事業,取自: http://www.ithome.com.tw/news/111967。(最後瀏覽日:2017年8月18日)。

程郁芬,〈進擊的巨量資料〉,科技大觀園,取自:https://scitechvista.nat.gov.tw/c/WEUw.htm (最後瀏覽日:2017年6月30日)
黃慧雯,〈手機感測器好多種 5分鐘搞懂原理〉,中時電子報,2016 年5月28日,取自:http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20160528001322-260412。
黃燕勤,〈淺談大資料(big data)〉,中央研究院資訊處,取自:http://newsletter.ascc.sinica.edu.tw/news/read_news.php?nid=3003 (最後瀏覽日:2017年8月8日)。
劉耕睿,〈智慧工廠工業未來大趨勢〉,中時電子報,2015年5月3日,取自: http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20150503000122-260204。
賴品如,〈英飛凌推出「iBadge」身分識別管理系統〉,DIGI TIMES,2015年4月2 日,取自:http://www.digitimes.com.tw/tw/dt/n/shwnws.asp?CnlID=13&packageid=9299&id=0000417903_OSJ8CC3X1Q1UDC2CKJ8UV&cat=10&ct=1。
1.7 其他
Guibert Francois,新電子科技雜誌主編,〈智慧手機、物聯網、穿戴式三引擎驅動半導體產業成長大添動能〉,《2015年電子工業市場年鑑》,城邦文化事業股份有限公司出版,2015年。
Pless Uffe, 〈穿戴裝置醫定旺,位置感知技術加持-醫療穿戴裝置應用更廣〉,《新通訊元件雜誌》,第175 期,2015年9月。
丁于珊,〈全面啟動穿戴應用大爆發〉,《CTIMES零組件雜誌》,第283期,2015年5月。
王智弘,黃耀瑋,蕭玗欣,新電子科技雜誌主編,〈搶當智慧家庭聯網技術主流-ZigBee、Thread、藍芽仙拼仙〉,《2015年電子工業市場年鑑》,2015年。
何智祥,〈智慧家庭應用服務發展趨勢與市場概況〉,《Compotech Asia》, 第198期,2015年10月。
洪春暉,〈打通發展物聯網產業的任督二脈 :客製化製造〉,《CTIMES零組件雜誌》,遠播資訊股份有限公司出版,第298期,2016年8月,
張慈映,新電子科技雜誌主編,〈2013年醫療器材需求勁揚〉,《2013電子工業市場年鑑》,城邦文化事業股份有限公司發行,2013年 。
莊惠雯,〈白色家電互聯標準登場中國大陸物聯網發展添動能〉,《新通訊元件雜誌》,第150期,2013年8月。
黃耀瑋,〈穿戴裝置醫定旺,位置感知技術加持-醫療穿戴裝置應用更廣〉,《新通訊元件雜誌》,2015年9月。
廖專崇,〈MCU注入智慧工控夠力,從自動化到智動化IIoT催生智慧工廠〉,《新通訊元件雜誌》,第177期,2015年11月。
蔣村杰,〈智慧運輸概念夯車聯網商機潛力無限〉,《工業技術與資訊》,第293期,2016年3月。
2. 外文文獻
2.1 Books
LESSIG, LAWRENCE, CODE AND OTHER LAWS OF CYBERSPACE (Basic Books 1999).
2.2 Journal Articles and Book Chapters
Hartzog, Woodrow & Evan Selinger, The Internet of Heirlooms and Disposable Things, 17 N.C. J. L. & TECH. 581 (2016).
Lerman, Jonas, Big data and Its Exclusions, 66 STAN. L. REV. ONLINE 55 (2013).
Ohm, Paul, Broken Promise of Privacy: Responding To the Surprising Failure of Anonymization, 57 UCLA L. REV.1701 (2010).
Ohm, Paul, Branding Privacy, 97 MINN. L. REV. 907 (2013).
Peppet, Scott R., Regulating the Internet of Things: First Steps Toward Managing Discrimination, Privacy, Security, and Consent, 93 TEX. L. REV. 85 (2014).
Peyton Antigone, A Litigator’s guide to the Internet of Things, 22 RICH. J.L. & TECH. 9 (2016).
Polonetsky, Jules & Omer Tene, Privacy and Big Data: Making End Meet, 66 STAN. L. REV. ONLINE 25 (2013).
Proia et al., Consumer Cloud Robotics and the Fair Information Practices Principles: Recognizing the Challenges and Opportunities Ahead, 16 MINN. J.L. SCI. & TECH. 145 (2015).
Richards, Neil M. & Jonathan H. King, Big Data Ethics, 49 WAKE FOREST L. REV. 393 (2014).
Richards, Neil M. & Jonathan H. King, Three Paradoxes of Big data, 66 STAN. L. REV. ONLINE 41 (2013).
Richards, Neil M., The Dangers of Surveillance, 126 HARV. L. REV. 1934 (2013).
Rubinstein Ira S., Regulating Privacy by design, 26 BERKELEY TECH. L.J 1409(2011)
Serwin, Andrew, The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809 (2011).
Warren, Samuel D. & Louis D. Brandeis, The Right to Privacy, 4 HARV.L.REV. 193 (1890).
2.3 Cases
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S 479 (1965)
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)
2.4 Reports
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 4/2007 on the Concept of Personal data (June 20, 2007), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2007/wp136_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 15/2011 on the Definition of Consent (July 13, 2011), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2011/wp187_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 01/2012 on the Data Protection Reform Proposals (March 23, 2012), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2012/wp191_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 5/2012 on Cloud Computing (July 1, 2012), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2012/wp196_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 02/2013 on Apps on Smart Devices (Feb 27, 2013), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2013/wp202_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 03/ 2013 on Purpose Limitation (April 2, 2013), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2013/wp203_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Advice Paper on Essential Elements of a Definition and a Provision on Profiling within the EU General Data Protection Regulation (May 13, 2013), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/other-document/files/2013/20130513_advice-paper-on-profiling_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Article 29, Opinion 05/2014 on Anonymisation Techniques (April 10, 2014), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2014/wp216_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 8/2014 on Recent Developments on the Internet of Things (Sep. 4, 2014), available at
http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2014/wp223_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Statement on Statement of the WP29 on the Impact of the Development of Big data on the Protection of Individuals with regard to the Processing of Their Personal Data in the EU (Sep.16, 2014), available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2014/wp221_en.pdf.
Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Guidelines on the Right to Data Portability (April 5, 2017), available at http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/just/item-detail.cfm?item_id=50083
European Commission, Summary Report on the Public Consultation on the Green Paper on Mobile Health, (Jan.12, 2015), https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/summary-report-public-consultation-green-paper-mobile-health.
European Data Protection Supervisor, Opinion 1/2015 Mobile Health: Reconciling technological innovation with data protection (May.21, 2015), available at: https://edps.europa.eu/sites/edp/files/publication/15-05-21_mhealth_en_0.pdf.
EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, BIG DATA: SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES, PRESERVING VALUES (May 2014), available at https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/big_data_privacy_report_5.1.14_final_print.pdf.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, PRIVACY ONLINE: A REPORT TO CONGRESS (1998), available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/reports/privacy-online-report-congress/priv-23a.pdf.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, PRIVACY ONLINE: FAIR INFORMATION PRACTICES IN THE ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE A REPORT TO CONGRESS (2000), available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/reports/privacy-online-fair-information-practices-electronic-marketplace-federal-trade-commission-report/privacy2000.pdf.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, PROTECTING CONSUMER PRIVACY IN AN ERA OF RAPID CHANGE: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUSINESS AND POLICYMAKERS (March, 2012), available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/reports/federal-trade-commission-report-protecting-consumer-privacy-era-rapid-change-recommendations/120326privacyreport.pdf
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, DATA BROKERS A CALL FOR TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITIES (May 2014), available at https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/reports/data-brokers-call-transparency-accountability-report-federal-trade-commission-may-2014/140527databrokerreport.pdf.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, INTERNET OF THINGS: PRIVACY & SECURITY IN A CONNECTED WORLD (Jan 2015), available at https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/reports/federal-trade-commission-staff-report-november-2013-workshop-entitled-internet-things-privacy/150127iotrpt.pdf
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, BIG DATA: A TOOL FOR INCLUSION OR EXCLUSION?-UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUES (Jan 2016), available at: https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/reports/big-data-tool-inclusion-or-exclusion-understanding-issues/160106big-data-rpt.pdf.
INFORMATION COMMISSIONER’S OFFICE, ANONYMISATION: MANAGING DATA PROTECTION RISK CODE OF PRACTICE (Nov. 2012), available at: https://ico.org.uk/media/for-organisations/documents/1061/anonymisation-code.pdf
INFORMATION COMMISSIONER’S OFFICE, CONDUCTING PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENTS CODE OF PRACTICE (Feb. 2014), available at https://ico.org.uk/media/for-organisations/documents/1595/pia-code-of-practice.pdf
INFORMATION COMMISSIONER’S OFFICE, BIG DATA, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, MACHINE LEARNING AND DATA PROTECTION (Mar.1, 2017), available at https://ico.org.uk/for-organisations/guide-to-data-protection/big-data/.
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION, INTERNET REPORTS 2005: THE INTERNET OF THINGS (2005), available at https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/tunis/newsroom/stats/The-Internet-of-Things-2005.pdf.
THE WHITE HOUSE, BIG DATA AND DIFFERENTIAL PRICING (Feb. 2015), available at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/whitehouse_files/docs/Big_Data_Report_Nonembargo_v2.pdf.
2.5 Web Resources
APPLE, https://www.apple.com/tw/apple-pay/ (lasted visited June 30, 2017).
APPLE, https://www.apple.com/watch/ (lasted visited June 30, 2017).
Bilton, Nick, For Fitness Bands, Slick Marketing but Suspect Results, (April 27, 2014 11:00 AM), N. Y. TIMES, available at https://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/27/for-fitness-bands-slick-marketing-but-suspect-results/
Cavoukian Ann, Privacy by Design: The 7 Foundational Principles, (Aug. 2009), available at https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/pbd-primer.pdf.
Council of Europe, Recommendation CM/Rec (2010)13 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data in the Context of Profiling (Nov. 23, 2010) , available at http://194.242.234.211/documents/10160/10704/Recommendation+2010+13+Profiling.pdf.
DOJ, OVERVIEW OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 (2015 Edition), available at https://www.justice.gov/opcl/overview-privacy-act-1974-2015-edition.
European Commission, Green Paper on Mobile Health (“mHealth”), (April 10, 2014), https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/green-paper-mobile-health-mhealth.
Ehrenfreund, Max, Edward Snowden says he leaked NSA surveillance program (complete coverage), THE WASHINGTON POST (June 10, 2013), available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/edward-snowden-says-he-leaked-nsa-surveillance-program-complete-coverage/2013/06/10/1a6d525e-d1da-11e2-a73e-826d299ff459_story.html?utm_term=.a9c60e90111d.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, IN THE MATTER OF TRENDNET, INC., FTC 122-3090, (Feb. 7, 2014), https://www.ftc.gov/enforcement/cases-proceedings/122-3090/trendnet-inc-matter.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, COMPLAINT, IN THE MATTER OF TRENDNET, INC., FTC 122-3090, (Feb. 7, 2014), available at https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/cases/140207trendnetcmpt.pdf.
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, COMPLAINT, IN THE MATTER OF FANDANGO, FTC 132-3089, (Aug. 19, 2014), available at https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/cases/140819fandangocmpt.pdf.
Felten Ed, Are pseudonyms “anonymous”?, FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, (Apr 30, 2012, 1:03PM), available at https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/techftc/2012/04/are-pseudonyms-anonymous.
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION, OVERVIEW OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS (June 2012), available at https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.2060-201206-I
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION, Press Release: ITU releases 2016 ICT figures, INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (July 22, 2016), available at http://www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/Pages/2016-PR30.aspx.
LIFELINE BIOTECHOLOGIES, https://www.lbti.com/first-warning-system. (last visited July 30 , 2017).
Mell, Peter & Timothy, Grance, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 2-3(Sep. 2010), NIST Special Publication 800-145, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, available at http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-145.pdf
OECD, OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data (2013), available at http://www.oecd.org/sti/ieconomy/oecdguidelinesontheprotectionofprivacyandtransborderflowsofpersonaldata.htm.
OECD, The OECD Privacy Framework 3-4 (2013), available at http://www.oecd.org/sti/ieconomy/oecd_privacy_framework.pdf.
OFFICE OF PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT GUIDELINE, available at https://www.justice.gov/opcl/docs/2012-doj-pia-manual.pdf.
OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET, OMB GUIDANCE FOR IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY PROVISIONS OF THE E-GOVERNMENT ACT OF 2002, M-03-22 (Sep. 26, 2003), https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/omb/memoranda_m03-22/#7.
OFFICE OF PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT OFFICIAL GUIDELINE (March 2012), available at https://www.justice.gov/opcl/docs/2012-doj-pia-manual.pdf.
OFFICE OF PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES, E-GOVERNMENT ACT OF 2002, DOJ, https://www.justice.gov/opcl/e-government-act-2002 (last visited July 12, 2017).
Ohlhausen, Maureen K, The Internet of Things and the FTC: Does Innovation Require Intervention?,(Oct. 18, 2013), FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/public_statements/internet-things-ftc-does-innovation-require-intervention/131008internetthingsremarks.pdf.
One M2M, Security Solutions and Services for the IoT, (Feb. 2016), available at http://www.onem2m.org/images/files/oneM2M_Security_Briefing_A4.pdf.
Peikoff, Kira, Therapy Borne on Electrical Currents, N. Y. Times (May 4, 2015, 4:39 PM), available at http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/05/04/therapy-borne-on-electrical-currents/.
Ramirez, Edith, Opening Remarks of FTC Chairwoman Edith Ramirez at The Internet of Things: Privacy and Security in a Connected World, FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (Nov.19, 2013), available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/public_statements/opening-remarks-ftc-chairwoman-edith-ramirez-federal-trade-commission-internet-things-privacy/131119iotremarks.pdf.
Santucci, Gerald, The Internet of Things: Between the Revolution of the Internet and the Metamorphosis of Objects, available at: http://theinternetofthings.report/Resources/Whitepapers/92b99645-ca34-49e8-9c2e-796ff995f8ab_3.pdf.
SLEEP CIRCLE, https://www.sleepcycle.com/ (The last visited July 18, 2017).
Statt, Nick, How an Army of Vulnerable Gadgets Took Down the Web Today: Malware Known as Mirai is Targeting the Smart Home, THE VERGE MULTIMEDIA, (Oct 21, 2016, 4:55pm), available at http://www.theverge.com/2016/10/21/13362354/dyn-dns-ddos-attack-cause-outage-status-explained.
STANFORD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY, Privacy, STANDFORD UNIVERSITY, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/privacy/. (last visited June 30, 2017).
WHATS APP, https://www.whatsapp.com/about/ (last visited July 25).
WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM, BIG DATA, BIG IMPACT: NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENt (2012), available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TC_MFS_BigDataBigImpact_Briefing_2012.pdf.
指導教授 王明禮 審核日期 2017-8-25
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