|| P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, L. S. Peh, and D. Rubenstein, “Energy-efficient computing for wildlife tracking: design tradeoffs and early experiences with zebranet,” SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev., vol. 36, pp. 96–107, Oct. 2002.|
 A. Lindgren and A. Doria, “Experiences from deploying a real-life dtn system,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference Consumer Communications and Networking,pp. 217 –221, Jan 2007.
 K. Fall, “A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets,” in Proceedings of ACM conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, SIGCOMM ’03, pp. 27–34, 2003.
 E. M. Daly and M. Haahr, “The challenges of disconnected delay-tolerant manets,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 241 – 250, 2010.
 D. Johnson and D. Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks,” Mobile computing, pp. 153–181, 1996.
 C. Perkins and E. Royer, “Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing,” in Proceedings of Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 90 –100, feb 1999.
 P. Jacquet, P. Muhlethaler, T. Clausen, A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, and L. Viennot, “Optimized link state routing protocol for ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of of IEEE International INMIC, pp. 62 – 68, 2001.
 Y. Li, M. Qian, D. Jin, L. Su, and L. Zeng, “Adaptive optimal buffer management policies for realistic dtn,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, pp. 1–5, 30 2009-dec. 4 2009.
 J. Burgess, B. Gallagher, D. Jensen, and B. N. Levine, “Maxprop: Routing for vehiclebased disruption-tolerant networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1 –11, April 2006.
 T. Spyropoulos, R. N. Rais, T. Turletti, K. Obraczka, and A. Vasilakos, “Routing for disruption tolerant networks: taxonomy and design,” Wireless Networks, vol. 16, pp. 2349–2370, Nov 2010.
 W. Zhao, M. Ammar, and E. Zegura, “A message ferrying approach for data delivery in sparse mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of ACM international symposium onMobile ad hoc networking and computing, pp. 187–198, 2004.
 R. C. Shah, S. Roy, S. Jain, and W. Brunette, “Data mules: modeling and analysis of a three-tier architecture for sparse sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 1, pp. 215 –233, 2003.
 M. C. Gonz’alez, C. A. Hidalgo, and A.-L. Barab’asi, “Understanding individual human mobility patterns,” Nature, vol. 453, no. 7196, pp. 779–782, 2008.
 C. Song, Z. Qu, N. Blumm, and A.-L. Barabasi, “Limits of predictability in human mobility,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5968, pp. 1018–1021, 2010.
 H. Dubois-Ferriere, M. Grossglauser, and M. Vetterli, “Age matters: efficient route discovery in mobile ad hoc networks using encounter ages,” in Proceedings of ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computin, pp. 257–266, 2003.
 V. Erramilli, A. Chaintreau, M. Crovella, and C. Diot, “Diversity of forwarding paths in pocket switched networks,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement, pp. 161–174, ACM, 2007.
 A. Lindgren, A. Doria, and O. Schelen, “Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks,” SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 7, pp. 19–20, Jul 2003.
 E. Jones, L. Li, J. Schmidtke, and P. Ward, “Practical routing in delay-tolerant networks,” Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, pp. 943 –959, Aug 2007.
 C. Liu and J. Wu., “Practical routing in a cyclic mobispace,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 369–382, 2011.
 T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C. Raghavendra, “Single-copy routing in intermittently connected mobile networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE SECON, pp. 235–244, IEEE, 2004.
 A. Vahdat and D. Becker, “Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks,” tech. rep., Technical Report CS-200006, Duke University, 2000.
 A. Keranen, T. Karkkainen, and J. Ott, “Simulating mobility and dtns with the one,” Journal of Communications, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 92–105, 2010.
 S. C. Nelson, A. F. H. III, and R. Kravets, “Event-driven, role-based mobility in disaster recovery networks,” in Proceedings of ACM workshop on Challenged networks, pp. 27–34, 2007.
 K. Lee, S. Hong, S. J. Kim, I. Rhee, and S. Chong, “Slaw: A new mobility model for human walks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 855 –863, April 2009.
 Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos, P. Konstantinos,Raghavendra, and C. S., “Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM workshop on Delay-tolerant networking, pp. 252–259, 2005.
 S. C. Nelson, M. Bakht, and R. Kravets, “Encounter-based routing in dtns,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 846 –854, April 2009.
 T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C. S. Raghavendra, “Spray and focus: Efficient mobilityassisted routing for heterogeneous and correlated mobility,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, pp. 79–85, March 2007.
 V. Erramilli, M. Crovella, A. Chaintreau, and Christophe, “Delegation forwarding,” in Proceedings of ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing,pp. 251–260, 2008.
 A. Balasubramanian, B. N. Levine, and A. Venkataramani, “Replication routing in dtns: A resource allocation approach,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 18, pp. 596–609, April 2010.
 A. Chaintreau, P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, C. Diot, R. Gass, and J. Scott, “Impact of human mobility on opportunistic forwarding algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing,vol. 6, pp. 606 –620, June 2007.
 T. Karagiannis, J.-Y. L. Boudec, and M. Vojnović, “Power law and exponential decay of intercontact times between mobile devices,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing,vol. 9, pp. 1377 –1390, Oct 2010.
 C. Bettstetter, H. Hartenstein, and X. Perez-Costa, “Stochastic properties of the random waypoint mobility model,” Wireless Network, vol. 10, pp. 555–567, Sep 2004.
 S. Yang, X. Yang, C. Zhang, and E. Spyrou, “Using social network theory for modeling human mobility,” IEEE Network, vol. 24, pp. 6 –13, September-October 2010.
 C. Boldrini and A. Passarella, “Hcmm: Modelling spatial and temporal properties of human mobility driven by users’ social relationships,” Computer Communications, vol. 33,no. 9, pp. 1056 – 1074, 2010.
 P. Nain, D. Towsley, B. Liu, and Z. Li, “Properties of random direction models,” in Proceedings of of IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 1897 – 1907 vol. 3, March 2005.
 W. jen Hsu, T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and A. Helmy, “Modeling time-variant user mobility in wireless mobile networks,” in Proceedings of of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 758–766, May 2007.
 M. Musolesi and C. Mascolo, “Designing mobility models based on social network theory,” SIGMOBILE, vol. 11, pp. 59–70, July 2007.
 I. Rhee, M. S. S. Hong, K. Lee, S. J. Kim, and S. Chong, “On the levy-walk nature of human mobility,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 19, pp. 630–643, Jun 2011.
 D. Brockmann, L. Hufnagel, and T. Geisel, “The scaling laws of human travel,” Nature,vol. 439, no. 7075, pp. 462–465, 2006.
 M. Kim, D. Kotz, and S. Kim, “Extracting a mobility model from real user traces,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1 –13, April 2006.
 V. Conan, J. Leguay, and T. Friedman, “The heterogeneity of inter-contact time distributions:its importance for routing in delay tolerant networks,” Arxiv preprint cs/0609068,2006.
 W. Gao, Q. Li, B. Zhao, and G. Cao, “Multicasting in delay tolerant networks: a social network perspective,” in Proceedings of ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, pp. 299–308, 2009.
 Y. Li, Z. Wang, D. Jin, L. Su, L. Zeng, and S. Chen, “Optimal beaconing control for epidemic routing in delay-tolerant networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,vol. 61, pp. 311 –320, Jan 2012.
 E. Altman, G. Neglia, F. De Pellegrini, and D. Miorandi, “Decentralized stochastic control of delay tolerant networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1134 –1142, April 2009.
 H. Jun, M. H. Ammar, and E. W. Zegura, “Power management in delay tolerant networks:A framework and knowledge-based mechanisms,” in Proceedings of IEEE SECON,vol. 60, 2005.
 Y. Xi, M. Chuah, and K. Chang, “Performance evaluation of a power management scheme for disruption tolerant network,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 12, pp. 370–380, Dec. 2007.
 M. Sasabe and T. Takine, “A simple scheme for relative time synchronization in delay tolerant manets,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems, pp. 395–396, 2009.
 B. J. Choi and X. Shen, “Distributed clock synchronization in delay tolerant networks,”in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1 –6,May 2010.
 A. Keranen, J. Ott, and T. Karkkainen, “The one simulator for dtn protocol evaluation,”in Proceedings of ICST International Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques,2009.
 J. Vig, “Introduction to quartz frequency standards. revision,” tech. rep., DTIC Document,1992.