博碩士論文 996202013 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳彥甫(Yen-Fu Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球物理研究所
論文名稱 由海底地震儀資料探討加瓜海脊鄰近區域之地震構造
(Seismotectonics of the Gagua Ridge area from OBS data)
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摘要(中) 台灣島座落在菲律賓海板塊與歐亞大陸板塊的聚合區域,是呂宋島弧碰撞大陸邊緣所產生的島嶼。在這高聳且陡峭的島嶼東邊以及南邊各有一個隱沒系統存在,分別是琉球隱沒系統和呂宋隱沒系統。在此區域裡,地震主要是分布在台灣島東部的碰撞帶或者沿著兩個隱沒系統延伸,並且呈現逆衝型和拉張型的震源機制型態。然而,在西菲律賓海盆上卻有不少的走向滑移型地震出現,甚至已經遠離了板塊隱沒的邊界。除此之外,從2009年8月到2010年2月的七個月期間,耶雅瑪增積楔形體底下的海洋板塊也發生四起規模大於5.0的走向滑移型地震,而其中的兩起還分別達到了6.3和6.7。因為受限於現有的地震測站較遠,或者觀測網無法完全地包覆這些地區,所以仍然無法確定造成這些地震的斷層走向,遑論是形成原因。2010年4月26日,加瓜海脊東邊發生一起Mw= 6.5的走向滑移型地震,而它的震源機制型態與先前提到的地震相當類似。為了對這種類型的地震有更進一步地了解,甚至希望能夠得知它們背後代表的意義,所以我們在主震發生後的一個星期於震央周圍佈設16顆海底地震儀,並利用記錄到的餘震資料來做分析。
  由海底地震儀組成的臨時觀測網持續地記錄22天,期間共有1476個地震事件被記錄到並成功地定出震源位置。經過地震資料品質的篩選以及雙差分地震定位演算法的重新定位後,主震震央周圍的地震群排列出西北-東南向的線形,指示這次的事件是由左移型的走向滑移斷層所引發的。此外,這條斷層的走向大致上與菲律賓海板塊和歐亞大陸板塊間的相對移動方向平行,所以本次主震與板塊間的運動應該有密切的關係。台灣周圍磁力異常圖顯示台灣東邊有兩條互相平行且呈現西北-東南向的構造邊界存在。其中,西南邊的構造邊界正好將呂宋島弧撞擊台灣島所引發的地震和一系列發生在隱沒板塊上的地震分隔開來,暗示著此構造邊界兩側受到的應力作用狀態並不相同。另外,本次主震的震央位置就正好落在西南邊的構造邊界延伸方向上,且餘震分布指示的斷層走向和構造邊界的方向完全一致。根據上述的所有現象,我們推測這些發生在海洋板塊上的走向滑移型地震是因為菲律賓海板塊持續地朝西北方向移動時,高凸在板塊西邊的呂宋島弧阻礙了板塊繼續向前的移動;另一方面,一系列典型的隱沒帶地震顯示海洋板塊正順利地沿著北邊邊界-琉球海溝朝西北方向隱沒到歐亞大陸板塊之下。當同一個板塊卻受到不同的應力作用邊界時,就在應力轉換的區域形成一系列左移型的走向滑移地震。
摘要(英) Taiwan, located on the boundary between the Eurasia plate (EU) and the Philippine Sea plate (PSP), is an orogenic belt formed by the collision between the Luzon Arc and the continental margin. Most earthquakes occur around Taiwan and along the Ryukyu subduction system with thrusting mechanism. However, there are some events which are associated with strike-slip faulting on the Philippine Sea plate and away from the subduction zone. On 26 April 2010, a strike-slip type of earthquake (Mw = 6.5) occurred on the east of the Gagua Ridge. We deployed 14 OBSs to record its aftershocks in order to acquire more information regarding these strike-slip earthquakes on the oceanic plate. Most aftershocks are clustered and aligned to the NW-SE direction. It indicates that the area is dominated by a sinistral strike-slip mechanism. In West Philippine Basin, two main geological structures, oriented NE-SW and NW-SE, were recognized from bathymetry map. The two features are associated with the spreading event in West Philippine Basin and an old oceanic fracture zone. Since the trending of the cluster in our study is different from the strikes of the two features in the West Philippine Basin, the seismicity seems not to be linked to the reactivation of the former structures. Finally, the aftershock distribution is sparse from 11 to 13 km depth, indicating the presence of Moho discontinuity where the lithospheric strength is weak relatively. This result is consistent with the Moho depth obtaining from the gravity model.
關鍵字(中) ★ 加瓜海脊
★ 西菲律賓海盆
★ 海底地震儀
★ 走向滑移斷層
關鍵字(英) ★ West Philippine Basin
★ Gagua Ridge
★ strike-slip fault
★ ocean bottom seismometer
論文目次 摘要...................................i
誌謝.................................iii
Abstract..............................iv
圖目錄................................vi
表目錄...............................vii
一、緒論...............................1
1.1 研究動機與目的...................1
1.2 本文內容.........................2
二、地體動力背景.......................5
2.1 台灣及其周圍的地震活動特性.......5
2.2 西菲律賓海盆.....................6
2.3 花東海盆.........................8
2.4 加瓜海脊.........................9
三、研究方法及其原理..................18
3.1 STA/LTA比值法...................18
3.2 雙差分地震定位演算法............19
四、資料來源與處理流程................23
4.1 儀器介紹........................23
4.2 資料處理........................23
4.2.1處理軟體介紹.................23
4.2.2 挑選波相到時與初步定位......24
4.3 重新定位........................24
4.3.1 一維速度模型................25
4.3.2 雙差分資料..................26
4.3.3 雙差分地震定位..............27
五、結果與討論........................39
5.1 地震分布........................39
5.2 地震剖面........................40
5.3 地震的形成機制..................41
六、結論..............................52
參考文獻..............................53
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指導教授 林靜怡(Jing-Yi Lin) 審核日期 2012-8-17
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