博碩士論文 996206009 詳細資訊




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姓名 張瑀峻(Yu-chun Chang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 水文與海洋科學研究所
論文名稱 澎湖海域潮流之數值模擬及其發電潛能評估
(Development of a High Resolution 3-D circulation Model for the Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Peng-Hu)
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摘要(中) 潮流在淺海陸棚區是困難度低、穩定性高、可完全預測的海洋能源。
海流發電機組的設置可能改變當地流場的流速或流向,從而影響營養鹽類、
浮游生物、稚仔魚及魚卵的分佈與通量等,這些變異可能改變原本脆弱的
浮游生物群聚組成與結構,進而影響整體海洋生態系統。本研究以澎湖海
域為例,建立高解析精度潮流數值模式進行潮流發電潛能評估與探討發電
機組放置對當地流場造成的影響。
本研究建構之高解析精度潮流數值模式推算發電潛式結果顯示,吼門
水道與西嶼外垵西側海域最具發電潛能。本研究以改變摩擦係數模擬不同
裝置容量之潮流渦輪機,實驗結果顯示10 倍、100 倍和1000 倍之摩擦係數
約等同於設置10kW、20kW 和30kW 之理想化潮流發電機組之效果。據此
將探討兩個部分,第一個部份為不同裝置容量之潮流發電機組置放對強流
區造成的改變,另一個部份是以模擬示蹤劑佈放實驗探討水體交換效率的
變化。
強流區改變部份,於跨海大橋吼門水道中心置放發電機組後,發現於
其北側產生另一強流區,南側第二渠道支流流速也增加,且隨發電機截取
能量加大而增加。西嶼外垵西側海域案例中,強流區座落位置往西外移,
且亦隨發電瓦數增加而愈加顯著。
水體交換效率變化部份,根據示蹤劑模擬之結果,若以30kW 之理想
化潮流發電機組為例,渦輪機設置前後示蹤劑傳輸擴散範圍減少了約10
km2,較未設置前約減少16%左右。再計算各濃度傳輸擴散面積所佔總傳輸
擴散面積百分比,稀釋後的示蹤劑其低濃度(10%以下) 在置放發電機後傳
輸擴散面積增加14.5%,高濃度(20%以上)則減少6.5%,可知內海水質傳輸
擴散範圍縮減,示蹤劑受到底部渦輪機影響,高濃度的示蹤劑滯留當地,
降低澎湖內海的水體交換效率。西嶼外垵西側海域的實驗中,渦輪機置放
對當地水質交換的速率與比例皆無顯著影響。
摘要(英) Tidal power is a clear and constant renewable ocean energy that can be predicted
accurately. With the rapid development of shallow water turbine technologies in the
commercial market, the uncertainties of the investment in terms of cost-benefit assessment
can be reduced. The tidal current energy conversion is considered as one of the favorable
alternative in Taiwan’s energy policy. One of the crucial issues is the impacts that may be
brought by the installation of turbines. As the kinetic energy is uptaken, the follow field will
change and hence the transportation of nutrients, plankton and lava will altered, which leads
to the direct impact of ocean ecosystem.
The aim of present study is to setup a high-resolution 3-D ocean circulation model that
is capable to simulate the tidal current at curvy coastline in Peng-Hu Archipelago. The
numerical model system is first validated using field measured datasets. From the simulation
results, it is found that the Hou-Men Channel and western Si-Yu sea area have the greatest
energy potential in Peng-Hu. It is worthy to noted that the processes of tidal dynamic in the
inner-bay of Peng-Hu Archipelago behave similar to a lagoon with two narrow open ends,
where the effects of phase lags of major constituents is limited. The almost synchronized tidal
current flow into the inner-bay from the north and south ends can be identified during flood
tide and vice versa. Concerning to the approaches to simulate the effects of the installation of
tidal energy conversion units, this study adopted the method of modifying the bottom drag
coefficient to simulate the flow field change incurred by installing difference turbine of
various capacities.
Furthmore, the discussions on the change of current fields in the vicinity of installations
as well as the change of water body exchange rate in the inner-bay with respect to various
turbine capacities are carried out.
In the Hou-Men Channel case, the location of strong current stream will move northward due
to the installation of turbines, and the velocity increases in the south channel. In western
Si-Yu sea area, the location of strong current stream moves westward. From the results, both
Hou-Men Channel and western Si-Yu sea area entertained more severe impacts of the shifting
of strong stream locations as the capacity of turbine increased.
This study also compares the variation of the rates of water body exchanged at different
sites through the tracer simulated experiments. For example, the setup a 30kW idealized
turbine in Hou-Men Channel will inccur, the tracer spearding area reduced by 16% compared
to original case. In western Si-Yu sea area, there seems no significant altering of tracer
spreading with respect to different capcities of turbine.
關鍵字(中) ★ 潮流發電
★ 澎湖海域
★ 數值模式
關鍵字(英) ★ numerical model
★ Peng-Hu
★ tidal current energy
論文目次 中文摘要 ................................................................................................................ I
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ III
誌謝 ..................................................................................................................... IV
目錄 ..................................................................................................................... VI
圖目錄 ................................................................................................................. IX
表目錄 ................................................................................................................ XII
符號說明 .......................................................................................................... XIII
第一章 台灣海域潮流發電 ................................................................................. 1
1-1 台灣能源現況與政策 ............................................................................. 1
1-2 台灣的海洋能源 ..................................................................................... 2
1-3 潮流發電簡介 ......................................................................................... 3
1-4 研究動機與目的 ..................................................................................... 5
1-5 本文架構 ................................................................................................. 6
第二章 數值模式 ................................................................................................. 8
2-1 數值模式簡介 ......................................................................................... 8
2-2 數值模式基本描述 ................................................................................. 9
2-2-1 控制方程式 .................................................................................. 9
2-2-2 紊流閉合模式 ............................................................................ 12
VII
2-2-3 σ座標轉換 ................................................................................ 14
2-2-4 邊界條件 .................................................................................... 17
2-2-5 網格配置 .................................................................................... 18
2-2-6 穩定條件 .................................................................................... 20
2-2-7 模式計算架構與流程 ................................................................ 21
2-3 三維潮流數值模式之建構 ................................................................... 24
2-3-1 模式區域 .................................................................................... 24
2-3-2 模式驅動 .................................................................................... 24
第三章 澎湖海域數值模擬結果與討論 ........................................................... 27
3-1 模式校驗 ............................................................................................... 27
3-1-1 資料來源 .................................................................................... 27
3-1-2 校驗結果 .................................................................................... 28
3-2 模擬結果 ............................................................................................... 31
3-2-1 澎湖海域流場特性 .................................................................... 31
3-2-2 發電潛能之估算 ........................................................................ 39
第四章 澎湖海域發電機組置放模擬實驗 ....................................................... 41
4-1 強流區變化之探討 ............................................................................... 43
4-2 水體交換效率變化之探討 ................................................................... 48
第五章 結論與建議 ........................................................................................... 64
VIII
參考文獻 ............................................................................................................. 67
附錄A ................................................................................................................. 70
附錄B ................................................................................................................. 74
附錄C ................................................................................................................. 76
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指導教授 錢樺(Hwa Chien) 審核日期 2012-7-10
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