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    題名: 垃圾收集作業危害評估;Waste collection operations hazard assessment
    作者: 許明華;Ming-hua Syu
    貢獻者: 環境工程研究所碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 垃圾收集作業危害;垃圾收集風險評估;密封壓縮式垃圾車;Job safety Observation;Job Hazard Analysis;Garbage Collection Hazards;Risk Assessment
    日期: 2010-07-25
    上傳時間: 2010-12-08 13:51:14 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 清潔隊人員負責維護城市的環境整潔,作業時不僅需隨垃圾車在街道上清運垃圾,也需進行水溝的清理、道路路面清掃等作業,作業時間含括日間及夜間,是極為消耗體力的辛苦工作。本研究依據OHSAS 18001系統標準要求,以桃園縣清潔隊密封壓縮式垃圾車收集隊員為主要研究對象,執行危害辨識、風險評估及風險控制,研究範圍涵蓋完整收集作業程序及評估垃圾收集作業危害控制,運用歷年重大收集作業危安事件分析、動作分析輔助判定及問卷調查等三方面取得分析資料。分析問卷傷害及時間狀況加以統計求得傷害出現頻率;歷年重大收集作業危安事件分析及動作分析輔助判定,求得風險嚴重度、整合頻率及風險矩陣求得風險等級。 調查工作以結構式問卷為主,共收集265份人員問卷,可用有效問卷數251份進行資料分析,內容包括個人特徵、工作因素、危害因子及健康問題等因素,資料分析首先探討工作環境危害及健康問題的盛行率,並進一步分析個人特徵、工作因素及工作環境危害與健康問題的相關性。研究結果顯示清潔隊員自我報告的健康問題盛行率以消化系統最高(13.9%),其次為皮膚系統(7.6%)、肌肉骨骼系統(6.8%)及呼吸系統(6.0%)。對於工作環境所帶來的傷害類型,清潔隊員自我報告的前五項分別為:肌肉骨骼傷害、割刺傷害、噴濺傷害、滑(跌)倒及呼吸系統不適。 求得頻率最高傷害類型有:噪音、振動、過勞或緊張及肌肉骨骼傷害,高度嚴重傷害類型等級有:噴濺、滑倒、跌倒、電擊及交通危害。 整合導入評估求得高頻率低嚴重度風險:噪音、振動及過勞或緊張;低頻率高嚴重度風險:噴濺及交通危害。 遭受危害比例以年資6~10年,相較年資5年以下遭受危害比例高,人為失誤所佔比例最高,亦為衍生性危害風險主因,評估結果發生頻率最低,反而嚴重度等級最高,建議各級環保單位改善層面仍應以現場機具設備、人員實際作業面作為改善。 When compared to other occupations, municipal waste or garbage collection, one of the major tasks performed by the general sanitation personnel, does not seem to be a high-risk one. However, based on the incident statistics compiled by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration from 2001 to 2008 for 24 cities and counties, there were 125 fatalities and 4, 484 serious injuries out of a total of 30,308 sanitation workers. Although the fatality statistics included non-job related incidents, the rate was much higher than the national average for all occupations. Unfortunately, the risk of injury and death of sanitation workers hasn’t improved over the years. Like other professions requiring manual labor, garbage collection can put tremendous strain on the workers. A relatively number of injuries stem from constantly repeating awkward movements such as jumping on and off the riding step located in the back of the vehicle, lifting heavy trash bags filled with unknown subjects and hazards. One of the most common hazards encountered by garbage collectors is the contents of trash bags. When compressed, flying contents of the bag can cause all sorts of injuries. This study aims to evaluate the risks associated with municipal garbage collection by following the steps of hazard identification, risk assessment guidelines specified in OHSAS 18001. Questionnaire is used to analyze safety perception of the sanitation workers of Taoyuan County. The questionnaires were issued to 265 garbage collectors and truck drivers. Personal information, job characteristics, hazards, personal experience with incidents and means of treatment, personal hygiene related questions were designed to evaluate the perception and work habit of the workers. On-site job observations were also conducted to gain first-hand information on garbage collection. Based on the survey, musculoskeletal disorder, cut by sharp objects, burning caused by splashing liquid, fall and slip from step are the most common injuries. Recommendations to reduce the exposure to and consequence of physical and chemical hazards of garbage collectors are also recommended.
    顯示於類別:[環境工程研究所碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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