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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/53512

    Title: 王船山史論研究──以政治為核心的探索;A Study on Wang Chuan Shan's Historical Review: Focus on Politics
    Authors: 劉毅鳴;Liu,Yi-ming
    Contributors: 中國文學研究所
    Keywords: 王夫之;船山;讀通鑑論;宋論;明末清初;經世致用;歷史哲學;政治思想;華夷之辨;Chuan Shan;Pragmatism;Philosophy of history;Political philosophy;the distinction between Chinese and barbarian;Du Tongjian lun;Wang Fu-zhi;the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty;Song lun
    Date: 2012-07-29
    Issue Date: 2012-09-11 17:48:17 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 船山是明末清初三大儒之一,在明朝滅亡、滿清入主中國的變局下,他極力從歷史經驗中探索亡國的原因,希望找出政治上的長治久安之道,而成就其《讀通鑑論》、《宋論》兩鉅著。本論文從船山的心性工夫論及歷史哲學等哲學理論開始談起,試圖描繪出船山心中理想的政治型態之藍圖。「制度」與「人」是政治的兩大關鍵要素。就政治制度來說,船山以道德為朝代創建乃至長治久安的關鍵因素。「道德」並非狹義地從心性上說,而是君主能否順應客觀時勢之理。此「理」關鍵處在於保民、愛民,因此船山論郡縣、隋唐三省制、以詩賦取士、立法宜寬、經濟自由、獎勵農業等,往往是站在對百姓有實際助益的角度著眼。就執政者來說,船山繼承儒家「德治」觀念,以人的品德為政治良窳之根本。能夠有剛直的操守,信守道德原則,不慕虛榮浮華,而又謙遜寬容的君子,才能擔當起重任。這樣的君子必然知所進退,不會為了一時的功業而盲目出仕,毀傷名節。即使退隱,君子也能投身教化事業,為道德理想的延續而奮鬥。君子執政以「簡」為最高原則,把握住國家發展的大方向,細節則充分信任、授權給下屬處理。肯定既有制度的合理性,採取漸進改革,減少改革的風險。就政治活動的外圍領域──倫常教化與學術文化來說,家庭倫理為政治倫理的基礎。政治上的君臣關係,是以「名義」維繫。船山發揮孔子「正名」思想,認為「名」非虛名,而是義的象徵,可發揮穩定局勢的積極作用。政府對人民的教化,並非上位者持教條要求下位者,而是上位者盡力完成分內之事,建立良善的環境,使百姓易於從事自我修養。在學術文化上,船山堅守「華夷之辨」,強調族群的純正性。華夷是以文化為主要區分標準,兼及其他。政治上華夏民族的團結,比效忠一家一姓更重要。對於儒家以外的學說,如佛道、陰陽家等,船山認為或過於消極,或為了統治者開脫罪名,或為了謀求權位,總之皆是以利欲為出發點,不足以做為治國的骨幹。Chuan Shan is one of the leading three Confucian scholars during the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty. Under the turbulent changes between the end of the Ming regime and the Manchu invasion, Chuan Shan had made an utmost effort to explore from historical experiences the contributing factors to the fall of the Ming Empire. He expected to find out the grounds for a lasting political stability, so he wrote two monumental literary critiques: Du Tongjian lun (Comments on reading Zi Zhi Tong Jian: The Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government) and Song lun (Comments on the history of Song Dynasty). Starting from the discussion of Chuan Shan’s Xinxing Gongfu Theory (The theory on mind-cultivation), historical philosophy and other philosophical theories, this paper is aimed to depict the blueprint of Chuan Shan’s ideal political pattern.“Institution” and “people” are the two pivotal elements of politics. As far as political institution is concerned, Chuan Shan believes “moral” is the key factor to the founding of a new dynasty, which also guarantees the empire’s prolonged stability. Such “moral” should not be defined in a narrow sense within the mind-cultivation. Instead, it is mainly about the “way” of whether the monarch on the throne can temporize with the objective current situation. The spirit of the “way” lies in how the emperor protects and cares for the subjects. As a result, Chuan Shan argues in his books about the following ideas: Junxianzhi (a system of the local administration in ancient China), Sanshengzhi (the Three Departments system developed in the Sui and Tang Dynasty), Shifu examination (the tradition of selecting officials by poetry and ode works), the loose legislation policy, the economic liberalism, the promotion of agriculture and so on. All of these concepts are suggested to favor the practical benefits of the general public. As far as the rulers are concerned, on the other hand, Chuan Shan succeeded to the Confucian idea of “Dezhi” (the guidelines of ruling by virtue), believing that human virtues are the foundation of a well-operated political system. Only “junzi" (a term to describe Confucius’ ideal person) can carry the burden because of their honorable integrity, reliable moral principles, and modesty, also because they are not vanity-oriented. Junzi surely knows when to act and when not to act. They would not blindly take up an official post merely for transient achievements at the cost of their reputation. Even when retiring from the world, they usually dedicate themselves to education and keep fighting for their moral ideals. The highest guiding principle with which Junzi governs a country is “jian” (simplicity). “Jian” means the ruler can grasp the general direction of the national development and completely trust and authorize his/her subordinates to deal with the other details. They approve of the rationality of the existing institution and manage to reform the society in a progressive manner, which would reduce the risks of a political chaos. In terms of external political activities, such as ethical civilization and academic culture, the family ethics lays the ground for the political ethics. Politically, the monarch-subject relationship is maintained by “ming-yi” (the ethical naming code). Chuan Shan elaborates Confucius’ idea about “zheng-ming” (name-rectification), arguing that the “name” is a symbol of “yi” (justice or righteousness) rather than an unsubstantial title. Through “zheng-ming” can the social order be constructively stabilized. The content of the ethical civilization imposed by the government on its people does not teach the superior to force the inferior by ethical creeds. Instead, it teaches the superior to do their best to fulfill their duties and create a decent environment where the ordinary folks can morally cultivate themselves. As for academic culture, Chuan Shan resolutely stands by “HuaYi Zhi Bian” (the distinction between the civilized Chinese and the barbarian), emphasizing the Chinese racial purity. Hua (Chinese) and Yi (barbarian) are differentiated mainly by culture, as well as other minor standards. Politically, the solidarity of the Chinese people is more important than pledging loyalty to the same ruling family. Except for Confucianism, doctrines such as Buddhism, Taoism, Yin-Yang thought (the thought on positive and negative forces) and others are considered by Chuan Shan either too destructive or too benefit-oriented. He believes these thoughts could be used to purge the rulers of their crimes or to help them pursue a higher position. Therefore, these thoughts to him are not qualified enough for the rein of a country.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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