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|Keywords: ||楊士奇;內閣;王振;楊稷.;Yang shi qi;cabinet;Wang zheng;Yang ji。|
|Issue Date: ||2012-09-11 17:54:22 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||摘 要 楊士奇出生於元明交際之時，父母在避難途中生下他，楊士奇未滿兩歲時；父親便逝世，楊士奇由母親撫養長大。楊士奇的母親曾經改嫁，但不到五年便因故攜楊士奇回到楊家，回到楊家的楊士奇接受母親嚴謹的教誨，自己也展現積極向學的態度，所以在學業上有著優異的表現。十五歲的楊士奇已經可以擔任私塾教師，二十歲離家出遊後也被延攬為縣學訓導，文學能力備受肯定，三十四歲時被徵為史官。 進京為官的楊士奇在明成祖即位後，被簡拔入內閣。入閣後的楊士奇先是以文學長才獲得成祖的賞識，成祖繼而任命楊士奇為太子監國時的輔臣。擔任監國輔臣的楊士奇機智沉穩、進退得宜，幫助時為太子的明仁宗成功度過爭奪儲位的政治鬥爭，楊士奇也因此得到仁宗的信任。仁宗嗣位後，身為東宮舊臣又輔佐有功的楊士奇成為仁宗最信任的大臣，楊士奇的表現也深得君心，明代內閣閣臣的政治地位提升由楊士奇開始。明宣宗嗣位後的楊士奇雖然不再有東宮舊臣的身分，但一連串優異的政治作為，讓宣宗對楊士奇信任有加，楊士奇在宣宗一朝有極高的政治地位與影響力，宣宗在位時也是楊士奇最有作為的時期。 英宗以九歲幼齡嗣位，楊士奇與楊榮、楊溥以及張太皇太后共同秉政。正統初年，由於楊士奇等人頗為得力，朝政尚稱清明，但隨著宦官王振的得勢，張太皇太后又於正統七年逝世，三楊的政治影響力江河日下。楊士奇的長子楊稷自幼居於家鄉，未得楊士奇親自管教，在家鄉的楊稷倚仗楊士奇的權勢，為非作歹，魚肉鄉里，楊士奇雖早有耳聞卻只是書面告誡，沒有積極性的處置。終於在正統七年，楊稷被鄉人投訴，楊士奇聲名大損，稱病不出。正統九年三月，楊士奇在楊稷案的陰影之下逝世，楊稷則在楊士奇逝世後同年，死於獄中。AbstractYang shi qi was born in the transition time between Yuan and Ming Dynasties while his parents were fleeing for refuge. His father dies when he was less than two. Yang shi qi was brought up by his mother. His mother remarried once, but the marriage did not last for five years. For some reasons his mother brought Yang shi qi back to their old home where she and her first husband used to live. Yang shi qi received rigorous education under his mother’s strict guidance with his diligent attitude. By the age of fifteen, he was able to become a teacher because of his outperformance in study. By the age of twenty, he was invited to be a direction of discipline. His literature ability was well recognized. By the age of thirty-four, he was recruited as an official historian. Yang shi qi became a member of the cabinet after Chengzu took his place. Yang shi qi firstly won recognization from Chengzu by his literature expertise, then was appointed to be an officer assisting the prince dealing with national affair. While assisting the crown prince, Yang shi qi was smart, calm, and good at politics, helping the crown prince, Renzong, assume the throne at the end. Yang shi qi then won the trust of Renzong. After Renzong came to the throne, Yang shi qi’s performance kept winning the emperor’s trust. The political status of the cabinet have grew since Yang shi qi. After Xuanzong took the throne, Yang shi qi kept performing well so that he was having high political status and great influence. Yang shi qi has done the most achievements during the reign of Xuanzong. Yingzong assumed the throne while nine. Yang shi qi, Yang rong, Yang pu, and Empress dowager Chang handled the affairs together. At the early stage of Zhengtong, the empire was well managed due to the help by the cohort of Yang shi qi. However, along with the facts of the growing power by eunuch, Wang Zheng, and the death of Empress dowager Chang in the 7th year of Zhengtong, the political power of the cohort of Yang’s was decreasing gradually. The oldest son of Yang shi qi, Yang ji, was grew up in hometown, and was overlooked by Yang shi qi. Yang ji relied on his father’s power and committed all sorts of crimes in hometown. Yang shi qi once warned his son but failed. In the 7th year of Zhengtong, Yang shi qi withdrawn from official positions due to the notoriety of Yang ji. Yang shi qi died in March, the 9th year of Zhengtong. In the same year, Yang ji died in the prison.|
|Appears in Collections:||[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文|
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