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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/60791


    Title: Aldo Leopold大地倫理規範探究––以Darwin式演化觀為進路;An Inquiry into Aldo Leopold’s Norms of Land Ethic Viewed from the Path of Darwinian Ethical Evolution
    Authors: 林春銀;Lin,Chun-Yin
    Contributors: 哲學研究所在職專班
    Keywords: 大地倫理;達爾文;演化;道德感;道德情感;信念;land ethics;Darwin;evolution;moral sense;moral sentiment;belief
    Date: 2013-07-26
    Issue Date: 2013-08-22 12:02:57 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本論文主要依循Aldo Leopold所著《沙郡年記》中蘊涵的Darwin天擇演化觀點脈絡,剖析人類如何與自然生態共存共榮。依循大地倫理規範的倫理擴充,透過Charles Darwin 所提出的道德感(The Moral Sense)之倫理起源演化的關係,及David Hume所提示的道德情感基礎,確立倫理的生態系統擁有內在價值,推論出大地倫理規範適可將人類倫理範疇的權利與義務擴展到生態物種。從生態學的經驗事實,經過同情感驅動反思後成為一個有效的哲學倫理準則。也就是說我們應該在科學背景下給予倫理道德規範更精準的理由論據,其中應包括心理與生態學,使其哲學內涵基礎更適用於未來,同時現代生態科學知識與技術足以將假設性的問題,重新定義人類的需求,為人類未來演化的環境建立更為穩定與和諧的社群網絡。
    本論文的主要理論參考系為Callicott的生態社群主張,只有維持整體生態系的繁榮與續存,個體才有幸福可言,而人類身為生態社群成員之一,必有所節制以降低生態系統的衝擊。再者,參照David Hume道德情感的利他主義情感基礎,尊重及考慮不同文化發展道德行為,而情感雖是道德感的根源,也需要個人恪守己分才能彰顯諸如Aristotle德行??學提示之善,達到個人的卓越、圓滿與實現幸福生活。進一步通過William James的信念觀念系統的主張確認道德真理,依循信念與反省的知識和價值作中介,通過現代科學所擴充的生態知?,使我們有更充足的知識條件可以支持道德內涵基礎,以進入人?社會的??規範擴展討論。環境倫理的道德範疇,應是由內而外的約束處置才能擴大於國際會議上共識及獲得普遍教育及經濟系統調整,更重要的是將潛在科學的解釋問題和哲學基礎之間的連結,打開一個跨學科的倫理學討論。
    This thesis attempts to illustrate that in Aldo Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac, Leopold explores the coexistence of humans and nature through the view of the Darwinian ethical evolution. Through Darwin’s evolution of the origin of ethic based on the moral sense as well as through David Hume’s theory of moral sentiment, Leopold affirms the intrinsic value of ecosystem and entails the norms of land ethic which could extend humans’ rights and obligations to the whole ecosystem. This thesis also suggests that we should give ethics more precise theoretical grounds under the background of science and this background should cover psychology and ecology so that the derived philosophical content and foundation could sustain trials through time.
    This thesis adopts three reference systems. The first one is the holistic ecological community of J. Baird Callicott through which I suggest that the happiness of an individual can only be achieved when the integrity of the ecosystem as a whole is maintained, and humans as an entity of the ecosystem must exercise moderation to lower the impact on the ecosystem. The second one is the moral sentiment of David Hume through which I argue that sentiments are the roots of morality and each individual must restrict himself within the proper bound in order to achieve the state of the good defined by Aristotle’s virtue ethics, personal excellence and happiness. The third one is the psychological theory of William James through which I claim that by means of the knowledge and value of belief and introspection as the intermediary, humans could expand the fundamental ethics and bring themselves into the society’s moral norms expanded by humans.
    The environmental ethics should be a constraint manifested from intrinsic beliefs to extrinsic actions before the concept can be widely accepted by all humans. In the institutions of the modern world, it should further be embraced in the general education and economic systems. Moreover, the most important action should be establishing a link between the issues interpreted by science and the fundamental concepts of philosophy as well as opening doors for cross-discipline discussion on the subject of ethics.
    Appears in Collections:[哲學研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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