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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/77288


    Title: 台灣低生育率之因素探討─以高學歷族群為例
    Authors: 簡秋源;Chien, Chiu-Yuan
    Contributors: 高階主管企管碩士班
    Keywords: 少子化;獎勵生育;生育行為;生育意願;fertility
    Date: 2018-07-03
    Issue Date: 2018-08-31 14:30:08 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 由於台灣近年來生育率有逐年下滑的趨勢,形成少子化的現象,少子高齡化影響國家人口結構改變,也意味人口將逐漸減少相對勞動供給也減少,加上壽命普遍延長而導致社會負擔沉重。政府祭出許多獎勵生育政策,但高學歷男女是否因而提升生育意願,值得深入探討。
    本研究是運用半結構式的深度訪談來分析影響生育意願的相關因素、生育政策的看法、生育行為的相關理論、經濟環境的因素、婦女勞動參與等,並歸納整理後作為深度訪談的基礎。深度訪問以桃園以北地區12位大專以上男女為對象,藉由深入訪談來了解其中原因,歸結出台灣目前超低生育率的原因所在。
    本研究結果將會發現,高學歷民眾對生育子女的價值觀有明顯改變如:1.基本需求的性、生育與結婚關係脫鉤,傳統養兒防老的觀念漸淡,加上女性自主意識的崛起。2.受教育延長因而造成晚婚是高齡少子的趨勢之一。3.現實經濟的考量下生育子女除了付出金錢,時間和心力外,高學歷民眾更重視機會成本的損失,害怕在照顧子女的過程中影響自己休閒生活的安排、工作升遷和身材走樣問題,進而可能以養寵物取代生育子女的現象。4.規避風險是高學歷男女生育考量的關鍵因素,再則潛在的社會文化因素之影響力甚大。
    現況生育子女的意願與政府獎勵政策的關聯性不高,因此政府應規劃長遠政策而非短視近利,唯有改善整體環境才能有效提升生育意願,除了經濟補助外,政治也不應干預經濟,訴求人口數目增加的同時也要兼顧人口的素質,以建立年輕男女對生育子女的信心,只有建立在一個友善且值得民眾信賴的總體環境 ,便可提升生育意願進而達到目標。;As Taiwan′s birth rate in recent years has been declining trend, cause less child phenomenon. The declining birth rate affects the country′s population structure, also means that the population will gradually reduce the relative supply of labor. Coupled with the general extension of life lead to heavy social burden, the government resorted to many reward birth policies, however, will the policies promote the willingness of highly-educated males and females? It is worth discussing more.
    The method used in this research is a semi-structured in-depth interview which is used to analyze the factors that affect fertility, the iew of fertility policy, the theory of reproductive behavior, the factors of the economic environment, the women′s labor participation and so on. A total of 12 highly-educated males and females who lives in the northern of Taiwan are interviewed and their views are then summarized.
    The results of this study found that highly educated people have a marked change in the values of give birth. First, in needs of sexual, give birth and marriage disengage, the traditional concept of raising children′s anti-aging faded, coupled with the rise of women′s sense of autonomy. Second, the extension of education and thus cause late marriage is the trend of the aging and less child phenomenon. Third, under realistic economic considerations, except pay more time and money for giving birth, highly educated people pay more attention to the loss of opportunity cost, fear of affecting their leisure life in the process of taking care of their children, job promotion and body aliasing, and possibly Pets to replace the phenomenon of childbirth. Fourth, risk aversion is a key factor in the development of highly educated men and women, and then the potential social and cultural factors are influential.
    The relationship between the willing of the bearing and the government incentives is not high, so the government should plan long-term policy rather than short-sighted, only to improve the overall environment can effectively enhance the fertility will, in addition to economic subsidies, the political should not interfere with the economy. While increasing the number of people at the same time have to take into account the quality of the population in order to establish the confidence of young men and women on the birth of their children, only established in a friendly and worthy of the general public trust, it′s could achieve promotion of fertility project goals.
    Appears in Collections:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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