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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/84991


    Title: 臺灣中北部客家鬼故事研究;A Study of Hakka Supernatural Stories in Northern and Central Taiwan
    Authors: 李秀鳳;LEE, HSIU–FONG
    Contributors: 客家語文暨社會科學系客語碩士班
    Keywords: 臺灣客家;民間故事;水鬼城隍;魍神仔;異文;Taiwanese Hakka;folklores;water ghost & city god;mong shin er;textual difference
    Date: 2021-01-27
    Issue Date: 2021-03-18 17:06:58 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 臺灣客家民間鬼故事的基底,來自客家族群在這塊土地上長期累積的歷史印記。鬼故事存在於客家鄉親的生活裡,是文化的產物,也是集體記憶的呈現,反映客家人對死亡的觀感與態度。不管你信鬼或不信,經過時空長期的演變,臺灣客家人的鬼觀念,早已與佛教、道教與儒家思想相融合,變成文化習俗及民間信仰的一部分。


    筆者在本文采錄42則由客家人講述或發生在客家莊的鬼故事,其中33篇皆是講述者或整理者親身經歷的「見鬼」事件,讓人充分感受當事人面對死亡的那種貼近、充滿好奇又畏懼的思維。不管是從歷史脈絡或是社會心理層面分析,可以發現每篇鬼故事並非空穴來風,都有其豐富的文化底蘊。


    因此,探討臺灣客家鬼故事反映的文化意涵,是本文闡述的重點之一。從文化地景、宿命觀、移民與殖民、因果報應及民間習俗等五大脈絡探尋,發現客家鬼故事蘊含的族群特性,是一種落地生根、認同本土的深刻情感。


    鬼的世界像人的世界,有善人、惡人之分,善鬼救人能升格為神,是臺灣民俗信仰特別之處。此類型故事能廣為流傳,應與民間深信積德行善必得善果的觀念息息相關。本文闡述的重點之二,探討水鬼晉升神格,如何通過人性試煉,並分析客家鄉親對地方神祇的精神寄託和願望投射。


    從隱喻延伸看魍神仔現象,是本文闡述的重點之三,經過文獻資料與現今社會新聞相互比較分析,再透過客籍作家筆下隱喻的魍神仔,發現有民間信仰做基底的魍神是現在進行式,這是有趣現象。


    客家諺語是客家人日常用語的重要成分,傳承先民智慧的結晶,豐富經驗的累積,親密感情的交融,也可從客諺看出臺灣客家人的鬼靈信仰,這是本文闡述的重點之四,筆者蒐集213則和鬼相關的客家諺語,從中窺探客家先民對鬼魂的崇拜。


    ;Taiwanese Hakka ghost folklores are founded on the historical imprints of the Hakka people upon this land through the centuries. Ghost stories are interwoven with the lives of the Hakka people—they are the products of their culture and also a presentation of their collective memories, reflecting the Hakka people’s perceptions of and attitude towards death. Regardless of whether you believe in the existence of supernatural beings or not, with its perennial evolution through time, Hakka people’s perception of these beings have already been merged with Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucianist intellectual traditions, evolving into an irreducible part of cultural traditions and folk beliefs.


    Included in this thesis are 42 ghost stories that are told by Hakka people or have taken place in Hakka villages; 33 of them are stories in which the storyteller or the editor has personally experienced “supernatural encounters” and are vivid illustrations of how their thought processes are when faced with death—their proximity, curiosity and fear of it. Whether they are analyzed from their historical contexts or from a social psychological point of view, it can be observed that none of these ghost stories exist in vacuums—all of them have arisen from a wealth of cultural roots.


    Therefore, the first focus of this thesis is to examine the cultural implications reflected in Taiwanese Hakka Ghost stories. Investigating within the contexts of, but not limited to, cultural landscapes, fatalism, immigration and colonization, karma and folk traditions, it becomes evident that within these Hakka ghost stories contains the character of its people—a profound mentality towards adopting local identities and growing roots wherever they find themselves in.


    The world of ghosts is comparable to that of humans: there is the good and the evil and good ghosts shall be promoted into deities when they come to the rescue of humans—these are what makes Taiwanese folk beliefs extraordinarily unique. These types of stories have been widespread owing to the common belief that performing kind deeds eventually attracts good karma. The second focus of this thesis is to discuss how water ghosts ascend into godship—how they succeed in the challenges of humanity—and also to analyze the spiritual dependence and wishful projections of the Hakka people towards local divinities.


    Extending analogies to engage in observations on the mong shin er phenomenon is this thesis’ third focus. By comparing and analyzing contemporary news on urban events and literature against each other, it can be recognized that the fascinating mong shin er phenomenon, which has its roots in folk beliefs, is very much still alive and ever-continuing.


    The fourth focus of the thesis is Hakka proverbs—they are inseparable components of the Hakka people’s daily vocabulary and not only pass down crystallizations of ancestral wisdom, accumulations of valuable experiences, exchanges of intimate emotions but also are manifestations of Hakka people’s beliefs in the supernatural. 213 Hakka proverbs pertaining to ghosts have been gathered and collected herein to allow a glimpse into the worshipping of ghosts by Hakka forebears.
    Appears in Collections:[客家語文研究所] 博碩士論文

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