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|Title: ||The other-race effect in attractiveness judgment and memory of faces|
|Authors: ||麗麗;Khan, Muniba|
|Keywords: ||劍橋臉孔記憶測試作業 （CFMT）;臉孔性別;種族臉孔;事件相關電位;臉孔美感;Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT);face gender;face race;event-related potentials;face beauty|
|Issue Date: ||2021-12-07 13:05:11 (UTC+8)|
在實驗三中，我們在東亞(台灣)受試者進行臉孔吸引力判斷和再認記憶作業時，同步記錄事件相關電位（ERPs）的神經生理訊號，比較對自身與其他種族、具吸引力與缺乏吸引力的男性/女性臉孔的大腦反應。對本實驗腦電波訊號的分析顯示：在兩個作業中，位於額葉、中央區電極記錄到的N1（60-80 ms），以及在頂葉、頂枕葉與枕葉區電極記錄到的P1（80-120 ms）、N170 （140-200 ms）和 LPC（500-700 ms）等事件相關電位成份，在處理臉孔時均有顯著的增強。在吸引力判斷作業中，自己種族的臉孔比起其他種族的臉孔引發更大的P1振幅；而在所有早期（N1、P1、N170）和晚期（LPC）的ERP成份中，由具吸引力的臉孔和不具吸引力的臉孔所引發的反應都沒有顯著差異。在再認記憶作業之"命中"回應(即正確辨認出有出現過的臉孔)的腦電波訊號中，其它種族的臉孔比起自己種族的臉孔引發更大的LPC振幅，但沒有偵測到臉孔吸引力的效果。
;The other-race effect (ORE) is a robust and cross-cultural phenomenon that shows people recognizing own-race faces better than other-race faces. The ORE is assumed to result from less experience with other-race than own-race faces. However, it remains to be determined whether the ORE would be observed in appreciating facial attractiveness. Previous research has shown that familiarity would affect attractiveness judgments and memory of faces, but the exact relationship between facial attractiveness and familiarity is still debated.
In Experiment 1 of the current study, participants’ performance in the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) showed a clear ORE in memory, as Caucasian participants remembered Australian faces better than Chinese faces, East-Asian (Taiwanese) participants remembered Chinese faces better than Australian faces, while South-Asian participants remembered faces of both races equally. On the other hand, Australian faces were rated as more attractive than Chinese faces by the participants from all three groups. Additionally, a Race Contact Questionnaire (RCQ) was administered to the participants to measure their social interaction with Caucasian and Chinese people. We did not find any evidence that participants’ memory accuracy and attractiveness judgment correlated with their answers in the RCQ.
To investigate the effect of facial attractiveness on recognition memory of the same faces, and whether participants are differentially sensitive to own-race and attractive faces, we collected attractiveness ratings and measured recognition memory performance on the same faces from East-Asian (Taiwanese) observers in Experiment 2. The results replicated the findings of attractiveness ratings in Experiment 1 by showing that Australian faces were rated as more attractive than Chinese faces. On the other hand, better recognition memory (as reflected in higher sensitivity and more conservative criterions) was found for own-race (Chinese) than other-race (Australian) faces. Further, an item-wise analysis was performed by correlating the mean attractiveness ratings of individual faces with the mean memory performance. The results revealed that perceived facial attractiveness negatively correlated with corresponding memory sensitivity and criterions. Specifically, attractive faces were remembered worse than unattractive faces.
In Experiment 3, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded simultaneously during the facial attractiveness judgment and the face recognition memory tasks, and ERP responses to own- vs. other-race and to attractive vs. unattractive male-female faces were compared. The analysis of the neurophysiological signals showed an enhanced N1 (60-80 ms) component at frontocentral sites and the P1 (80-120 ms), N170 (140-200 ms) and LPC (500-700 ms) components at parietal, parieto-occipital and occipital sites during face processing in both tasks. During the face attractiveness judgment task, a stronger P1 component was elicited by own- than other-race faces. No significant difference was observed at the early (N1, P1, N170) or late (LPC) ERP components for attractive vs. unattractive faces. During the face recognition memory task, a larger LPC component associated with the “hits” responses (i.e., correct identification of seen faces) to other-race than own-race faces was observed, while no effect of attractiveness was detected.
In summary, findings of the current study suggest that only the processing of facial characteristics related to race but not to attractiveness is directly modulated by familiarity and experience with faces. Further research is needed to clarify the behavioral and neurophysiological interactions among attractiveness, familiarity, and memory.
|Appears in Collections:||[認知與神經科學研究所 ] 博碩士論文|
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