In Taiwan, a dichotomous market structure is closely related to the progress of economic development. The purpose of the present article is to examine the market dynamics and dichotomous nature of Taiwanese manufacturing. A model of dynamic adjustment of industry structure is considered when both the speed of adjustment and the long-run market concentration are allowed to vary across industries. We use 118 four-digit manufacturing industries for empirical analysis of our models spanning between 1981 and 1991. Empirical findings show that both the speed of adjustment and long-run industry concentration are predominantly determined by minimum efficient scale. The speed of adjustment is much faster in a small open economy like Taiwan compared to mature economies like the US and Australia. In addition, the dichotomous nature of the market is supported in our findings for both periods, viz, 1981-1986 and 1986-1991, albeit weaker for the later period.