English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 69561/69561 (100%)
Visitors : 23049046      Online Users : 354
RC Version 7.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version


    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/44174


    Title: 美國電力產業脫鉤政策之探討-以加州為例;The Decoupling policy of the Utility Industry in United States-An Example of California.
    Authors: 唐于茹;Yu-Ju Tang
    Contributors: 產業經濟研究所
    Keywords: 需求面管理;脫鉤政策;能源效率;加州;電力產業;California;Utility Industry;Decoupling;DSM;Energy Efficiency
    Date: 2010-07-07
    Issue Date: 2010-12-08 14:52:55 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 1970年代的兩次石油危機,石油價格開始上漲,各國推出替代性能源,而美國也是其中之一。其中,電力產業便是美國政府從1970年代開始積極改變能源效率的產業之一,當時政府推動需求面管理(Demand Side Management, DSM)及綜合資源規劃(Integrated Resource Planning, IRP)而加州電力產業為協助政府在DSM的落實,從1980年代開始配合政府推動脫鉤政策(Decoupling)來達到減少人均用電量的效果。從統計數據發現,2005年加州是全美人均用電量最低為7032 kWh,另外也發現,美國全國人均用電量從1970年代開始不斷上升,但加州人均用電量卻從1970年開始到目前為止都維持在固定水帄。本研究欲探討不論是聯邦政府或加州州政府對於電力產業從1970年代所推出的一連串降低人均用電量的政策。 本研究結果發現,加州、紐約州、華盛頓州及緬因州皆因落實脫鉤政策而使人均用電量在這二十年間維持不變或大幅的降低。另外,在落實脫鉤政策中的紐約州、華盛頓州及緬因州皆是因1988年美國公用事業委員會聯合會主辦的第一屆IRP研討會而有深遠的影響,使得各州推出激勵措施以加速落實DSM,而加州原本只有電力費率調整機制(Electric Rate Adjustment Mechanism, ERAM),也因此一會議加入股東激勵的內容。在脫鉤政策落實方面,不論是聯邦政府或州政府的力量的確是成功的因素之一。在2005年的發電方式來看,加州的再生能源發電為全國第二、緬因州為全國第一,而華盛頓州則是水力發電為全國之冠,可是紐約州還是依賴石油、煤及核能發電。另外,由於加州的脫鉤機制是相當複雜,除與各州相同有採用帄衡帳戶外,另外它的耗損調整相當複雜。而從加州的能源效率發展來看,在長達將近40年的時間中,能源效率的演進是從投入資金鼓勵企業,到設定法規的要求確立DSM的融資體制,至近幾年開始鼓勵用戶使用能源效率的裝置。最後發現,若只單純採用脫鉤機制,而沒有相關的獎勵政策,則電力公司也不見得會推動DSM,故脫鉤政策必頇要搭配良好的獎勵制度。 本研究主要的貢獻是國內第一篇完整探討美國電力產業的脫鉤政策,並納入聯邦法規、DSM管理的內容、四大州各項項目的比較及加州的能源效率演進的介紹。After the two energy crises in 1970s, the price of petroleum started to rise. Countries all over the world also launched programs of substitute energy, and the United States was also one of them. Utility industry has been an industry which the American government actively involved to increase the energy efficiency since 1970s. By the time the U.S government conducted Demand Side Management (DSM) and Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) in 1980s, the California utility industry also adapted to the decoupling policy in order to cooperate with the government. While the power used per capita in America had kept rising since 1970, California always kept their numbers stable, and had the lowest power used per capita in the U.S. by year 2005 (7032 kWh). Our research aims to the utility policies on both the Federal Government of the U.S and the California government since 1970. The result showed that California, New York, Washington and Maine have effectively lower the power used per capita in the past 20 years due to conducted decoupling policy. Besides, New York, Washington and Maine were all deeply affected by the first IRP conference held by the U.S. Public Utility Commission (UPUC), and California, which only used Electric Rate Adjustment Mechanism (ERAM), also added shareholder incentive into their program after the conference. By the power generating mechanisms of the four states in 2005, California was at the second place of recycled power generating, and Maine was at the first place. From the experience of California energy efficiency, we can conclude the steps of energy efficiency in the past 40 years: governments first invest money to encourage the businesses in utility industry, and then set up laws and regulations; it is also seen to encourage the users using energy efficiency equipments in recent years. We also found that decoupling mechanism will be more effective if it comes up with incentives to the utility companies. The main contribution of our research is that we are the first study to completely investigate the decoupling policy of utility industry of the U.S in our country, and also included the contents of federal laws, DSM, the history of California energy efficiency and the comparison of various items between California, New York, Washington and Maine.
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟研究所] 博碩士論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    index.html0KbHTML701View/Open


    All items in NCUIR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    ::: Copyright National Central University. | 國立中央大學圖書館版權所有 | 收藏本站 | 設為首頁 | 最佳瀏覽畫面: 1024*768 | 建站日期:8-24-2009 :::
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback  - 隱私權政策聲明