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    题名: 以敘事學角度探索米歇爾?比托爾《變化》中的旅行與追尋;Le Voyage et la quete dans La Modification de Michel Butor : une etude narratologique
    作者: 王又津;Yu-Chin WANG
    贡献者: 法國語文學系
    关键词: 米歇爾?比托爾;《變化》;法國文學;敘事學;La Modification;Michel Butor;French literature;Narratology
    日期: 2011-08-18
    上传时间: 2012-01-05 14:04:12 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 《變化》(La Modification) 是米歇爾?比托爾 (Michel Butor) 於1957年完成的作品,同年得到法國雷諾多 (Renaudot) 文學獎,本書也是作者創作小說的代表作。   本論文以敘事學 (la narratologie) 方法分析小說。第一部分先分析文本 (le récit) 的語態 (la voix)、語式 (le mode) 與時間 (la temporalité)。傳統小說慣用第一或第三人稱敘述,但Butor改用法語第二人稱複數 (la deuxième personne du pluriel) 「您」(vous) 貫串全文,一旦閱讀小說,讀者很容易直接被拉入故事的情境中,一步一步隨著文本敘述 (la narration) 活動;「您」時而像老師鼓勵幫自己打氣,時而嚴厲地指責自己。在歷時二十一小時的火車旅行,主人翁Léon Delmont觀察身邊的人事物,投射自己的想像,不斷思考自己的現在、過去與未來,進行自我內心對話 (monologue intérieur)。文中運用正敘 (analepses)、倒敘 (prolepses) 交錯手法,主角的思緒在交錯的時空網路 (le cadre spatio-temporel)中,高興、不安、無奈、堅定之間不斷轉換,對自己的現況進行徹底反省,最終藉由寫作的方式達到自我救贖,雖然未來仍須繼續面對生活的阻力和挑戰,但在當下情感得到昇華,並獲得解脫與自由,主角也隱約暗示這個過程正是本部小說《變化》的創作由來。此外,小說中大量使用同步語態 (la simultanée) 敘事,讓讀者好像置身與故事人物相同的時空,作者藉此方式拉近故事人物與讀者的距離。   第二部份探討人物:主人翁是位四十五歲平凡中年男子,家住巴黎,有份穩定的打字機銷售工作,和妻兒過著小康生活,但隱藏於現狀的背後,卻是令他窒息的現實環境,邁入中年,體力、外貌大不如前,與家人的關係和愛情生活出了問題,主角的世界一步步走向失序,到了須做抉擇的時刻,主角決定展開一段旅行。在前往目的地的旅途中,如何認清楚現實的真相與虛幻的投影,經過掙扎,在幻想破滅真實浮現的時刻,找到存在於生命中一股足以支持自己繼續往前的力量。書中對人物的內心世界側寫刻畫細微而生動,值得讀者探討。   論文的最後部分,以Paul Larivaille敘事五段表 (le schéma quinaire) 分析故事的線性進展,及A. J. Greimas的符號結構 (le carré sémiotique) 分析在文本敘事的對立關係元素:青春-衰老 (être jeune- être vieux)、現實-夢 (réalité-rêve)、愛-恨 (amour-haine)、此地-他方 (ici-ailleurs) 等概念做為全文總結。 《La Modification》was completed in 1957 by Michel Butor. It was awarded the Renaudot (French Literary Prizes), and was considered the representative of the author. This paper analyzed the novel through narratology (la narratologie). In the first section, we analyzed the voice (la voix), mode (le mode) and temps (la temporalité). In conventional novels, it was used to narrate in the first or third person, however Butor chose to used the second person narration (la deuxième personne du pluriel) of “vous” to string up the whole context, as the readers read, they would easily plunge into the scenario of the narration (la narration) step by step. Sometimes, “vous”encourages yourself like a teacher, and some other times, “vous” strictly criticize yourself. In the train traveling over 21 hours, the leading role Léon Delmont observed the people and events around himself with his projected imagination, continuously thinking of his past, present and the future with interior monologue (monologue intérieur). It alternately adopted analepses and prolepses in the context, and the consciousness of the leading role kept changing among happiness, disturbing, helpless and resolution in the alternating time and space (le cadre spatio-temporel), to have a totally reflection of his current state, and finally achieve self-redemption by writing. Though he still has to confront the obstacles and challenges of life in the future, however the emotion was sublimiled, relieved and freed. The leading role seems suggested the process was the creative origin of this novel. In addition, it used simultaneous tense (la simultanée) all the time, and made the readers feel like staying in the same time and space with the roles. The author made the distance between readers and roles short. In the second part, this paper discussed the role of the story: The leading role is a 45 years old, normal middle-aged male living in Paris, who has a stable job of selling typewriter, leads a well-off life. However, hidden behind the current state was a real environment making him choked: moving toward middle age, being inferior on vigor and appearance, and getting into trouble on family relationship and love life. His world moved toward disorder, and he decided to start a journey at the moment of choice. In heading to the destination, he learned to clarify the truth and fake projections, and at the moment of emerging truth, he found out a power sufficient to support him moving on in life through struggles. In the book, the mental world of the leading role is depicted vividly and in very detail, which is worth discussing.   In the last part of this paper, the le schéma quinaire by Paul Larivaille was adopted to analyze the linear progress of the story. Besides, the symbol structure (le carré sémiotique) by A. J. Greimas was used to analyze the composite elements in narration : Youth- Senescence (être jeune- être vieux), Reality-Dream (réalité-rêve), love-hateness (amour-haine) and here-there (ici-ailleurs) to conclude this paper.
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