Motorcycle activity in Asian economies is a significant contributor to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, both when moving and when idling at traffic lights. This paper investigates Taiwanese motorcyclists' behavior of turning off the idling engine while stopping at traffic lights based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which recognizes that the achievement of voluntary change behavior can be identified by knowing an individual's attitudes (or behavioral intentions [BIs]) in the context of social norms (SN). A structural equation model system is used to identify candidate causal links between attitudes, SN, BI and behavior related to the idling stop behavior of motorcyclists. A partial least squares (PLS) model is built to correct the covariance matrix, given the relatively small sample size. Results suggest that attitudes, SN and perceived behavioral control, are significant determinants of idling stop BI at red lights.