The correlation between GDP and research publications is an important issue in scientometrics. This article provides further empirical evidence connecting revealed comparative advantage in national research with effects on economic productivity. Using quantitative time series analysis, this study attempts to determine the nature of causal relationships between research output and economic productivity. One empirical result is that there is mutual causality between research and economic growth in Asia, whereas in Western countries the causality is much less clear. The results may be of use to underdeveloped nations deciding how to direct their academic investment and industry policy.