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    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/54098


    題名: 灰寨客家話研究;Hakka Dialect From Hui-Zhai Study
    作者: 李慶華;Lee,Chingi-Hwa
    貢獻者: 客家研究碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 歷史比較;辭彙比較;揭西;灰寨客家話;方言比較;Dialectic Compa;Jiex;Hakka Dialect From Hui-Zhai
    日期: 2012-08-30
    上傳時間: 2012-09-11 18:31:28 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 灰寨鎮位於廣東省揭西縣,境內講客家話為主,有一部分講潮州話,語言接觸的影響,逐漸形成特有的灰寨客家話,本文即以此為研究對象。筆者深入當地田野調查,收集灰寨客家話的語音和詞彙,根據田調語料撰寫本論文。本文共分六章,第一章緒論,說明本文的研究動機與目的、研究方法及文獻探討。採用「田野調查法、語音描寫法、方言比較法、歷時比較法」,來進行分析研究,第二章介紹灰寨客家話的平面語音系統,依聲母、韻母、聲調,來探討其語音現象及文白異讀,並製成灰寨客家話的同音字表。第三章將灰寨客家話與中古音做比較,分成聲母、韻母、聲調進行歷時的比較。第四章介紹灰寨客家話的語音特點,將聲母、韻母、聲調的特點及「特殊字音」加以說明。第五章詞彙比較,重點在描述詞形之差異。第六章結論。本論文研究發現灰寨客家話的語音特點,聲母方面:有兩套滋絲音,知二精莊組合流今讀舌尖前音「ts、ts’、s」,知三和章組已合流今讀舌葉音「t?、t?’、?」。部分非組、知組字保留古重脣音、舌上音,非敷奉三母大部分已合流讀f,灰寨溪母字多讀「k’-」聲母。部份曉匣母合口字讀f。泥母字與來母字有別,不相混。韻母方面:咸攝一二等及三四等均呈現合流現象。果攝一等o韻與假攝二等a韻,宕攝一等o?/k與梗攝二a?/k韻兩兩相配。江攝開口二等「窗、雙」兩字保留古代中原東部的讀音,與通攝(*u?)合流。輔音韻尾「-m,-n,-?,-p,-t,-k」保留完整。聲調方面:有七個聲調,部分次濁上聲讀陰平,部分全濁上聲讀陰平屬白讀層,部分全濁上今讀陽去聲屬文讀層,並發現中古影、以、云母多數字及日母部分的聲母今音讀「?-」。灰寨客家話次濁聲母的聲調走向,陽調比陰調多。灰寨客家話的音韻系統和詞彙經研究比較分析後得知,與台灣客家話相同多,相異少,有保存底層用語用詞,也有創新的一面。相較於其他地區的客家話,灰寨客家話有幾個特殊的詞彙,例如:「去往(去那裡)、裡當(這裡)、夠日(整天)、白目(眼瞎)、你伴(你們)、佢伴(他們)、老鼠奶(米篩目)、烏田蛇(眼鏡蛇)、笑歪(害羞)、圩埔(都市)、伴大(同年)」等,這些特殊的詞彙在其他地區的客家話是較少見的。The Hui-Zhai(灰寨)town is located in Jiex county of Guangdong Province, and in the territory, people mainly speak Hakka dialect, while a small part of people speak Chaozhou dialect, moreover, due of interactions among different languages, the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai(灰寨) has gradually formed a special language of its own, and it is the research object of the paper. The author made on-site field survey, to collect language pronounciations and phrases of the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai, and to write the paper on the basis of the language data from field survey.The paper is divided into six chapters: Chapter One-Introduction, to illustrate the research motivation and purpose, research methods, as well as documentary investigations of the paper. Also, with adoption of “Field Survey Approach, Phonetic Description Approach, Dialect Comparative Method, and Historical Comparative Method”, the analytical researches are done accordingly. Chapter Two, to make introduction of flat pronunciation system on the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai, to make investigation of its sound phenomenon and discrepancies between ancient Chinese language and spoken language according to initials, finals of syllables and tone, to then create a list of words with similar sound for the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai. Chapter Three, according to initials, finals of syllables and tone, to make historical comparisons between the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai and the ancient Chinese sounds. Chapter Four, to make introduction on the phonetic traits of the Hakkan dialect from Hui-Zhai, and to make further illustrations on the characteristics of initials, finals of syllables and tone, as well as “special syllable sounds”. Chapter Five, by comparing the phrases, the differences of their morphology are highlighted. Lastly, Chapter Six-Conclusion.The research results of the paper are with findings on the phonetic features of the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai, on the aspect of initials: there are two sets of palatal sounds, one is the second level of zhi group(知組), Jing group (精組) and Zhuang group (莊組), nowadays to be combined together to pronounce sounds by the front of tongue (as “alveolar”), including “ ts, ts’, and s ”, and the other is the third level of the zhi group(知組) and Zhang group (章組), nowadays to be combined together to pronounce sounds by the palatal of tongue (as “palatal-alveolar”), including “ t?, t?’,and ? ”.For some part of words from Fei group (非組) and zhi group(知組), to keep the ancient tradition for stress on lip sound, and sounds from top of tongue, whereas for the intials from fei,(非) fu(敷) and feng(奉) groups, most of them are combined together nowadays, to pronounce as “ f ; moreover, for the words from xi(溪)initial group, most of them are pronounced as “ k’-“ initial. Also, some parts of the words from xiao(曉) and xia(匣) initial groups, with both upper and lower lip to close inwardly, to make pronunciation as “ f ”. Due there are differences for the words between Ni and Lai initial groups, both of them will not be confused with each other. On the aspect of finals of syllables, the first and second levels as well as the third and fourth level from Xian-classifier (咸攝), all of them are presented a phenomenon of confluence. There are matches with each other in duo, for example, the o consonant from the first level of Guo-classifier(果攝)and the a consonant from the second level of Jia-classifier (假攝), as well as the o?/k consonants from the first level of Dang-classifier)(宕攝) and the a?/k consonants from the second level of Geng-classifier. (梗攝) For the second level of Jiang-classifier(江攝)with mouth open, both of the two words-Chuang and Shuang(“窗 and 雙”), to keep their pronunciation from the eastern part of Midland in the ancient time, to be combined together with Tong-classifier)(通攝) (*u?). As to tail consonant of auxiliary sound-“-m,-n,-?,-p,-t,-k”, there is a complete preservation. On the aspect of tone: there are seven tones, and for some of the secondary voiced and rising tone, to pronounce “upper even tone”; for some of the completely voiced and rising tone, to pronounce “upper even tone”, belonging to Spoken language pronunciation level; for some of the completely voiced sound, nowadays to pronounce lower with falling tone, belonging to Ancient Chinese language pronunciation level; moreover, there are also findings that the most words from the ancient ying(影), yi(以)and yun(云) initial groups, as well as some of the words from ri(日) initial group, nowadays to be pronounced as “ ?- “. For the tone directions of the secondary voiced initials in the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai, there are more of them with lower than upper tone. After researches and comparison analysis between the phonetic system and phrases for the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai, to know that there are more similarities on the Hakka dialects between Hui-Zhai and Taiwan, while few are varied, and there is preservation of phrase usages from the rural areas, as well as on the side of innovation. In comparison to the Hakka dialects in other regions, there are several special phrases in the Hakka dialect from Hui-Zhai, for example: 去往(to where), 裡當(here), 夠日(whole day), 白目(blind), 你伴(you), 佢伴(they), 老鼠奶(short rice noodle), 烏田蛇(cobra), 笑歪(embarrassed), 圩埔(metropolitan) and伴大(peer), moreover, these special phrases are seldom seen in the Hakkan dialect from other regions.
    顯示於類別:[客家研究碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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