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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/5733

    Title: 隘墾區伯公研究:以新竹縣北埔地區為例
    Authors: 吳聲淼;Sheng-miau Wu
    Contributors: 客家社會文化研究所
    Keywords: 伯公下;伯公;墾戶首;隘墾區;Beikongxia;Beikong;cultivated area;leading cultivator
    Date: 2009-01-09
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 10:02:32 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 隘墾區伯公研究:以新竹縣北埔地區為例 摘 要 在台灣的開發史上,人與土地有著密切不可分的關係,而具有土地神性格及民生功能的土地公,便依附在人與土地的共生關係上,人在有形無形中仰賴土地公,土地公所扮演的是人與土地依存的媒介。人與土地、土地與土地公、土地公與人,三者間的相生相輔,衍生出種種的信仰習俗。土地公廟是台灣非常普遍的廟宇,以土地公為主祀神的廟宇居最多數,土地公的設置,往往與人群聚集勞動以及聚落的形成有關,因此,有人活動的地方就有土地公。 北埔地區偏處新竹城東南山區,漢人入墾之前,向為原住民的生活空間,姜秀鑾於道光15年(1835)武裝進入北埔,擊退原住民,並招佃開發山林埔地,吸引大批的漢民從事開墾,終至取得土地,墾民得以成家立業,定居於此。開墾當初,聚落居民為求在地的平安,有時僅三、五戶也會設置一個土地公來祭拜。在北埔地區稱土地公為「伯公」,稱土地公廟為「伯公下」,庄頭庄尾隨處可見。在1939年增田福太郎的《台灣の宗教》書中,指出台灣民間信仰是以天公、土地公和媽祖為中心展開的,可見土地公在台灣人心目中重要的地位。 筆者走訪北埔地區發現了百座以上伯公,祂就坐落在住家的附近,早晚到伯公下上香奉茶,成了家中長者每天的大事。家中有婚喪喜慶、子弟赴考、服兵役、求職,都得到伯公下前禮敬,祈求平安順利。事實上,伯公的蹤跡並非僅見於庄頭、田間,在其他地方也有祂的坐落,如墓旁(后土)、宗祠廳堂內(土地龍神)、一般神明的廟宇內均有供奉,由此可見伯公對北埔居民關係之密切,可謂北埔客家居民最親近之神祇了。 過去對於北台灣客家地區的伯公研究或偏於伯公類型的分類;或著重於伯公祭祀圈的討論;以及伯公廟建築型式的研究。北埔是金廣福墾戶武裝移民墾成的地區,有強而有力的墾戶所領導,支配地方,而以此隘墾區土地伯公信仰為範圍,從事人與土地關係的研究,則甚為缺乏。因此,本文希望透過對小區域社會發展的了解,探究北埔伯公信仰現況、武裝拓墾與北埔伯公、聚落環境與北埔伯公、北埔伯公與社會變遷等研究;其中特別針對北埔地區武裝移墾以及墾首地方強力的支配下,土地伯公信仰的發展情形,做一深入的探討。 本文主要之目的:第一,以歷史學、人類學、人文地理學等科際整合方式進行「北埔伯公信仰」的相關研究。第二,建立「北埔伯公信仰」在社會、經濟、宗教、歲時祭儀等人與土地之間關係。第三,探討隘墾區墾首與「北埔伯公信仰」的關係研究。 關鍵字:隘墾區、墾戶首、伯公、伯公下 Abstract There used to be a close relationship between mankind and land in the development history in Taiwan; therefore, the land deity with the characters of the land god and domestic capacity exists in the symbiosis of mankind and land. Consequently, mankind relies on the land deity who plays the role as the medium of mankind and land materially and immaterially. The beliefs and customs are derived from the relationship among mankind, land and the land deity. The temples of the land deity are common in Taiwan where the most major worshiped god is the land deity; moreover, setting the land deity relates closely to the formation of the tribes and the clusters of people; as a result, there is a land deity where there are people. Beipu located at the mountain southeast to Hsinchu City used to be the place where the indigenous peoples resided prior to the Han’s cultivation. Nevertheless, in 1835 (Dao-Kuang Year 15), Jiang Hsiu-Luan entered Beipu with armed forces and repelled the indigenous peoples; afterwards, the Han people were lured to come here for cultivation since Jiang recruited people for the cultivation. The cultivators obtained the ownership of the cultivated land and established the homes and business here. Finally, they resided here. In the beginning of the cultivation, 3-5 households would set a land deity for the peace; therefore, the land deity is called Bekkong and the temple is called Bekkongxia which are commonly seen in Beipu. In 1939, in the Taiwan’s Religion of Masuda Fukutarou indicates that the Taiwanese religious center comprises of heaven deity, land deity and Mazu which demonstrates the importance of the land deity in the Taiwanese. The researcher visited Beipu and discovered hundreds of the temples of the land deity located nearby the residences; therefore, it becomes a great routine for the elder to offer the joss sticks and a cup of tea to Bekkong. Whenever there is a wedding, funeral, examination, military service or employment, the worship is offered in front of Beikong as to pray for the peace and success. Actually, the existence of Bekkong appears at other places rather than households or farms, like aside the graveyard (Hou-tu), inside the clan shrine (land dragon deity) and along with the common deities in the temples. The preceding circumstances explain the closeness of Bekkong and the Beipu residents. Therefore, Bekkong can be called the most sincere deity of the Hakka residents in Beipu. The past studies relating to Hakka Bekkong in North Taiwan focus on the classification of Bekkong, the inquiry of circles of worshiping Bekkong, and the architectural styles of Bekkong temples. In fact, Beipu used to be the area for Jinguangfu cultivators with armed forces to reside; therefore, there used to be the powerful leading cultivator to dominate the local residents. However, the studies relating to the mankind and land along with the Bekkong belief in such a cultivated area are quite deficient. Consequently, through the realization of the small social development, this thesis expects to inquire the issues below, the status quo of the Bekkong belief, cultivation with armed forces and Bekkong in Beipu, tribal environment and Bekkong in Beipu, and the social alteration and Bekkong in Beipu. Furthermore, the development of Bekkong belief under the powerful domination of the leading cultivators and the cultivation with armed forces in Beipu is discussed profoundly. The major objectives of this thesis are to conduct the related research of Bekkong belief in Beipu via the interdisciplinary integration of history, anthropology and sociology, to build the relationship between mankind and land regarding Bekkong belief in Beipu in social, economic, religious fields and seasonal rituals and to discuss the relationship between the leading cultivator and Bekkong belief in Beipu. Keywords: cultivated area, leading cultivator, Beikong, Beikongxia
    Appears in Collections:[客家社會文化研究所] 博碩士論文

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