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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/57688

    Title: 教育改革與經濟發展;Educational Reforms and Economic Development
    Authors: 曹真睿
    Contributors: 中央大學經濟學系
    Keywords: 經濟學;非知識技能;教育制度;經濟發展;non-cognitive skills;education systems;economic development
    Date: 2009-09-01
    Issue Date: 2012-10-01 15:41:08 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
    Abstract: 雖然傳統的教育模型強調學校教育對知能的培養,學校可授與學生的,卻並不僅僅是學術上的技能 (Gradstein and Justman (2000, 2002); Bowles et al. (2001); Akerlof and Kranton (2002))。基於這些理論基礎,教育體系應考慮知識技能與非知識技能兩者的社會價值來設計。同時,許多亞洲國家開始進行一系列鼓勵培養非知識技能的教育改革。舉例來說,台灣(於1994)與泰國(於2006)漸漸脫離其傳統立基於聯招考試的大學入學制度(EER, Entrance Examination Regime)。相反的,錄取標準加入聯招考試成績以外的其他評量標準如高中成績、推薦信、以及課外活動的參與等等 (GAR, Generalized Admission Regime)。鑑於這些觀察發現,Tsaur (2008) 建立一個理論模型以解釋這些改變。其基本假說如下:教育改革可能是因應非知識技能在勞動市場與日漸增的重要性而產生。也就是說,非知識技能在生產的重要性可能隨著經濟發展而增加 (Bowles and Gintis (1976); Borghans et al. (2006))。然而,為簡化分析,Tsaur (2008) 假設大學的錄取率為 50%。這假設不僅代表了理論模型設定上的限制,也是實證研究上的一個缺失,因其無法反應台灣當前對大學教育過於普及的憂慮。本研究希望藉由放寬這個假設,來探討一些新興的議題如︰“無進入障礙的大學教育的潛藏問題"、“放寬大學入學管道是否有助於提升勞動生產力?" Tsaur (2008) 的另一個限制是缺少探討知識技能與非知識技能間的相互影響。其模型設定假設個人(非)知識技能的累積僅受其(非)知識技能的影響。這樣的設定考量了人力資本投資可能面對的取捨。然而,卻忽略了知識與非知識技能間存在的互補性。舉例來說,人格特質(如︰恆心)可以幫助知識的累積。相對的,知識(如︰指導手冊)可以規範行為的形成(如︰社會禮儀)。最重要的,不論是對個人人力資本的投資決策或相關教育政策涵意,允許知識與非知識技能間的相互影響,將可提升模型推論的可信度。總而言之,本研究的目標有三項。第一,彙整東南亞國家教育改革的異同。第二,設立一個 general 的理論模型解釋教育改革的可能發生原因。第三,利用此模型探討台灣當前的教育議題︰大學教育是否有供給過剩的情形? ; Although traditional models of schooling focus on cognitive development, schools can teach more than just academic skills (Gradstein and Justman (2000, 2002); Bowles et al. (2001); Akerlof and Kranton (2002)). Given these insights, educational systems should be structured recognizing the value of both cognitive and non-cognitive skills in the economy. At the same time, several Asian countries have pursued educational reforms that encourage the acquisition of non-cognitive skills. To be specific, Taiwan (in 1994) and Thailand (in 2006) began to gradually deviate from the traditional entrance exam based admission systems which are based solely on cognitive abilities (EER, Entrance Examination Regime). Instead, admissions criteria have been broadened to include high school grades, recommendation letters, and records of participation in extracurricular activities (GAR, Generalized Admission Regime). In light of these observations, Tsaur (2008) constructs a theoretical model capable of explaining these changes at the national level. Her main hypothesis is that educational reforms may result from the evolving role of non-cognitive skills in the labor market. That is, the importance of non-cognitive abilities for production may change during the process of economic development (Bowles and Gintis (1976); Borghans et al. (2006)). However, Tsaur (2008) imposes a half measure of university admissions for simplicity. This assumption enhances the degree of tractability at the expense of generality. In addition, the assumption represents not only a theoretical limitation but also an empirical failure since the excess of universities in Taiwan has appeared to be a major concern. By relaxing the number of admissions to be a specific number, this proposed project is capable of exploring the emerging issues such as: “What might be the potential problems associated with unconstrained capacity of university education?” “Would broadened access to university lead to an increase in labor productivity?” Another limitation in Tsaur (2008) is lack of interactions between cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills. In particular, a person’s acquisition of each type of skill principally depends on his respective level of each type of ability. This specification captures tradeoffs between cognitive and non-cognitive skills. However, it neglects the complementarities between these two abilities. For example, personality traits (ex. perseverance) can improve the accumulation of knowledge. Likewise, knowledge (ex. instructions) can enhance the formation of behavior (ex. manner). Importantly, by allowing for interactions between cognitive and non-cognitive skills, the degree of credibility on investment decisions and policy implications is increased. To sum up, the objective of the proposed project is threefold. First, provide an overview of educational reforms in Southeast Asia countries. Second, construct a general framework that can explain the educational reforms. Third, apply the model to examine the emerging issues in Taiwan: Is there an excess in supply of university-level education? ; 研究期間 9808 ~ 9907
    Relation: 財團法人國家實驗研究院科技政策研究與資訊中心
    Appears in Collections:[經濟學系] 研究計畫

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