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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/5785


    Title: 新竹地區還老愿儀式之研究;Research on Reciprocate Parental Wish Rites in the Hsinchu Region
    Authors: 謝賜龍;Szu-Lung Hsieh
    Contributors: 客家政治經濟與政策研究所在職碩士專班
    Keywords: 先生;還老愿;生命禮儀;海陸;客家;還願;新竹地區覡公;道士;師公;和尚仔;食齋仔;香花僧;儀式專家;Hailu accent;Hakka;Hsinchu region;bhiksu monk and bhiksuni nun;life etiquette;Hsiang-hua monk (a monk that assists with funera;ritual expert;Taoist priest;auspicious foreteller;wizard;reciprocate parental wish;Reciprocate;Master;monk
    Date: 2009-06-26
    Issue Date: 2009-09-22 10:04:04 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學圖書館
    Abstract: 新竹地區還老愿儀式之研究 摘 要 本文研究新竹地區還老愿儀式,透過詳細記錄儀式之過程、用品、空間、文本及儀式專家派別傳承等,本文得以分析儀式的意義。 所謂還老愿指的是子女在父母親過世後三年,代父母施行的還願儀式。新竹地區的客家人遇到生辰不順,運途欠祥,或是急難病苦,身體欠安之時;或大或小皆有口頭或心裡默禱恭向玉皇大帝等諸神聖,叩許祈保平安良福,祈求身體健康,並代為消災而解厄,添福增壽。一旦所求應驗,大都會即刻選定良辰吉日,酬神還願,答謝神恩。然而在實際生活中,很有可能因為事遠年湮,不及答謝神恩,一旦個人辭世登仙後,生前所求即成「老愿」,那就需要請先生、覡公、道士等儀式專家在自家門前搭起瑤台,辦理酬還夙愿,答謝神恩的儀式,客家人俗稱為「還老愿」。 本研究以新竹地區13鄉、鎮、市為參與觀察及訪談對象,依據在田野所蒐集的手抄文本及儀式的展演,分析各儀式專家的儀式內涵。本文認為還老愿儀式和凡吉內普的通過儀式主張相符,人從生到死歷經成年、婚嫁、老病、以及各種自然災變、人為禍福,一生之中遭遇各種緊張與危機,值此危機與緊張之時,便輒常舉行各種儀式,設法克服,企求安全渡過。因此,人們舉行與宗教信仰有關的各種儀式,安頓往生者,撫慰生者,而通過此一危機。 儀式中,子女在儀式專家的協助下,在自宅搭起的上、中、下座小宇宙,使神、人、祖先與整個大宇宙產生交會,提供一個天人溝通與實踐的相互感應場域,讓主事者追求心靈層次的平靜。 酬還老愿的儀式表面上看來,是因為擔心先人尚有夙願未還,可能在另外一個空間世界,受到責罰與痛苦,因而替自己的先人辦理酬還老愿。同時對子女而言,其內在深層意涵還包含替自己及家族消災解厄。因此,還老愿這種由子女代行之特點,不同於尋常通過儀式,不僅亡者得以圓滿,更解決了子女的心裡壓力。 總之,對於新竹地區的客家人而言,還老愿儀式等同於個人的最後一個生命儀式,而儀式中所揭示的「酬還」觀念,實係本區客家人對於生命的終極心態(ethos);而這對漢人社會與文化研究而言,具有十分重大的意義。 Research on Reciprocate Parental Wish Rites in the Hsinchu Region Abstract This research investigates the reciprocate parental wish rites in the Hsinchu region through careful recording of rite process, usage items, space, text and legacy from experts of different factions, this research dissects the meaning of a rite. The “reciprocate parental wish rite” is defined as a ritual that is carried out by proxy three years after one’s parents have passed away. The Hakka people in Hsinchu has a tradition of praying and asking for blessings from the Jade Emperor and other gods at times of difficulties, lack of good luck, ill health or lack of peace. Often they will also pray that the bad times will pass and good luck and long life will come. If their wishes do come true, most will choose an auspicious day to show their gratitude to the gods. However, in real life, most people of old age may not be able to return the favor. Thus, if one passed away without the opportunity to reciprocate, rites will be carried out by ritual experts such as auspicious foreteller, wizards or Taoist priests to return the favors to the gods. A terrace will be built in front of one’s house to carry out the rite to show gratitude to the gods, a rite commonly called “reciprocate parental wish rite” by the Hakka people. This research has 13 townships and cities as participants of investigation and interviews with hand-copy texts as basis of study to analyze the meaning behind each step of the rite. This research believes that the “reciprocate parental wish rite” has many similarities to the rites of passage of Van Gennep. The cycle of human life consists of birth, growth, marriage, old age, death and various other natural disasters or unpredictable events. During the tumultuous times people often carry out certain ceremonies or rites to overcome their obstacles. Thus, people hold rites similar to religious ceremonies to bring peace to the deceased and comfort to the living. During the rite, the children of the deceased will set up towers of upper, middle and lower cosmos through the help of the ritual experts. This allows interaction between the gods, the people and their ancestors with the entire universe, which in turn provides atmosphere where communication between this world and beyond is possible, and allows serenity to enter the hearts of those involved. On the surface of these reciprocate parental wish rites, one performs these rites by proxy for their ancestors because one worries about wishes that their parents/ ancestors have not yet fulfilled and therefore could be punished in the other world. From another perspective, these rites help remove ill fortune from one’s family and invite good luck. Hence, “reciprocate parental wish rites” differ from the usual rites of passage in that the posterity performs the rites to fulfill their parents wishes and simultaneously ease their own psychological pressures. In short, for the Hsinchu Hakka areas, the reciprocate parental wish rites act as the final ceremory of a person’s life .The concept revealed by this ceremory is the idea of giving back an equal amount for everything received, an important aspect of Hakkanese life.(ethos) Realizing the important of this rite has great signifcance fo Han Chinese in terms of social and cultural research.
    Appears in Collections:[客家研究碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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