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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/63978


    Title: 台灣電腦代工業國際採購管理系統—以A公司為例
    Authors: 黃德盛;Huang,De-Sheng
    Contributors: 管理學院高階主管企管碩士班
    Keywords: 供應鏈;國際採購管理系統;國際採購計畫;international procurement management system;international procurement plans;Supply chain
    Date: 2006-07-10
    Issue Date: 2014-05-08 15:39:30 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 近年來,由於產品的生命週期大幅縮短、且同業間競爭激烈,使得產品價格快速的變化,國際性的資訊、電子大廠為了降低營運成本,紛紛將利潤較低,較容易被取代的製造、組裝等業務加速外包給電子專業代工廠製造;因此讓台灣的電子代工業者有機會更加蓬勃發展,規模也日益茁壯。專業代工正像一股排山倒海、銳不可擋的風潮,迅速蔓延到電腦、手機、無線通訊設備和其他科技產品。而且在景氣越差時,國際大廠為了提昇自己的競爭優勢,更是大舉將產品委外生產,以求能降低製造成本,將有限的資源集中在自己的核心能力上繼續深耕,委外代工的比例因此越來越高。
    建構國際採購管理系統的目的在於降低成本,提升企業之競爭力。目前跨國企業在全球廣為設廠,因此某些產品可以在最接近市場的地方製造並且採取當地採購或國際採購的方式以省下大量成本;同時由於原物料採購數量大,國際採購人員的議價能力、交易活動之可靠性、跨國作業之時效性等成為重要關鍵。當企業擁有較佳之採購成本;可以同時利用網路連結全球衛星工廠組成產品供應鏈,隨時知道全球那些工廠的現有產能、產品項目以及零組件物料的安全庫存,一旦超過或低於警戒線,電腦會直接發出轉單或下單備料指令,把過多的庫存轉給庫存不足的工廠,或通知供應商趕快備料進貨補足生產所需。
    台灣代工業大陸設廠時同時面臨如何管理跨國性採購的問題。國際採購管理成為現今企業發展的重要的一環,成功的運用國際採購計畫、國際採購制度、及國際採購管理系統, 能使企業經營風險降低,有效的控制成本,增加企業利潤。
    本研究企圖以台灣電腦代工業A公司為例,進行個案實證研究。由於國際採購作業的成功與否涉及國際採購組織架構、國際採購管理系統及國際採購策略與應用等三大構面,其目標是確保國際採購作業之最終目的是能夠在適時、適量、適質及適價的活動下採購所需的產品。國際採購作業的內涵既廣泛又複雜,是一種挑戰性極高的工作。然而不論其性質、規模或複雜程度差異多大,所有的過程都只有一個共同的目的,那就是能順利購入所需產品,以滿足客戶的需求;要發展什麼樣的國際採購管理系統才是成功的關鍵?應如何去規劃國際採購組織與人力資源並進而使之達成目的?在一個國際採購作業之進行當中,有哪些策略性的關鍵因素是我們必須去關注的?
    本研究主要是在探討國際採購作業活動中,應該考量的關鍵因素,並建構一個完整的國際採購管理系統模式。此一模式除可確保國際採購計畫的成功,更重要的是可藉由國際採購管理系統來創造與增進企業的整體價值與競爭力。
    ;Over the recent years, due to the dramatic reduction of product life cycles and the fierce competition, the prices of IT products have been experiencing rapid changes. International IT companies have been outsourcing to professional OEM manufactures for the assembly processes that are of low margins or easy to duplicate. The Taiwanese electronics OEM manufacturers have been thriving on this trend and growing in size and strength. The outsourcing trend has also extending into the PC, mobile phone, wireless communications equipment and other technology products. In addition, in an economic downturn, international brands will step up their outsourcing activities and focus on their core competence instead, in order to reduce production costs and enhance their own competitive edge.  
    The purpose of establishing an international procurement management system is to reduce cost and improve a company’s competitiveness. At present, multinational corporations have a network of factories throughout the world so some products can be produced close to their target markets. Considerable manufacturing costs may be saved via local or international procurements. Meanwhile, due to the large quantities of material procurements, the bargaining power of the international procurement staff, the reliability of transaction activities and the timeliness of cross-country operations become the keys to the reduction of procurement costs. In addition, it is possible to link the satellite factories around the globe into one supply chain via computer networks so that the company can keep track of the current capacities, product items and the sufficient level of component inventories of individual factories at any given time. The computer will directly transfer orders or place orders for additional components, depending on which the inventory level runs below or above the warning lines. In this way, the factory with excess inventory will transfer their excessive inventory to those in shortage. It is also possible to inform the suppliers to speed up their shipments to meet up with the demands from the production lines.    
    For any Taiwanese OEM manufacturer that has production lines in China, the management of multinational procurements is one of the most important issues at today’s environment. A successful plan and management of an international procurement system reduces the operational risks, control costs and increase profitability.
    This research aims to study Company A, a computer OEM maker in Taiwan and uses Company A as a case study. The success of international procurements involves three dimensions, i.e. organization structure, management system and strategic 
    implementations. The ultimate purpose of international procurements is to provide products required at a timely manner with the right quantities and at the right prices. The operations of international procurements span far and wide. It is a daunting challenge. Regardless how big is the difference in nature, scale and complication, all the processes serve one common purpose: to procure the products necessary to meet with the demands from clients. What kind of the management system is required for a successful international system? How should we plan for the organization and human resources required to reach this goal? What are the strategic considerations that we must address in the process of international procurements?
    This research paper intends to explore the key success factors in the construction of a complete international procurement management model. Such a model cannot only ensure the success of international procurement plans, but also create and enhance the overall value and competitiveness of a corporate.
    Appears in Collections:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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