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    题名: 客家祖塔之形成與發展:以湖口地區宗族為例;The Formation and Development of Hakka Lineage Mausoleums: Studying the Clans in Hukou
    作者: 戴國焜;Tai,Kuo Ken
    贡献者: 客家社會文化研究所
    关键词: 客家;祖塔;祭祖;二次葬;儀式;Hakka;lineage mausoleum;ancestor worship;second burial;ritual
    日期: 2014-06-24
    上传时间: 2014-08-11 18:23:39 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 祖塔是臺灣客家社會文化獨特且重要的文化符碼,這種以單姓家族為單位的集體墓葬方式,在大陸客家原鄉沒有發現,也不見於臺灣其他族群。祖塔主要出現在北部臺灣桃竹苗地區客家族群聚落,通常以一個開基祖或某一世系祖先為首,以墳墓或塔的形式安置數十至數百個祖先靈骸,客家人又稱之為大風水。它形成於20世紀初,臺灣光復後迅速發展,至今仍方興未艾,甚至影響其他族群起而效法。
    這篇論文試圖以新竹湖口地區各姓氏所建造的祖塔為樣本,探討臺灣客家祖塔形成與發展情形。從田野調查資料分析發現,客家祖塔的形成與客家人勤儉刻苦、二次葬俗、崇尚風水、宗族組織與敬宗追遠的族群性有關;另外客家族群的遷移環境、社會變遷、殯葬法令與建築工法的演進對其形成產生重大影響。
    客家祖塔從型制發展、儀式展演與管理操作上,透露出客家人的宗法倫理觀、對往生祖先的態度、天與人的宇宙觀;近年來客家祖塔的發展在管理上隨著社會變遷與女權意識覺醒調整其傳統習俗,例如准許未婚往生女性入塔、入祠;另外客家祖塔逐漸發展成為各姓氏公廳之外的另一個神聖空間,藉著每年一次掃墓祭祖聚集該族宗親,扮演糾宗收族的角色。
    ;The Hakka lineage mausoleum is a unique and integral symbol of the Taiwanese Hakka community. This type of funerary practice, which is performed by individual clans, is neither found in the Hakka homeland in Mainland China nor in other areas where major Hakka populations reside. The mausoleums are typically shaped like a tomb or a pagoda, and the Hakka people refer to these structures as da feng shui. Tens or hundreds of ancestors’ remains or bones, including those of the first immigrants to Taiwan or the head of one branch of a clan, are preserved in these mausoleums. Initiated in the early twentieth century, this practice developed rapidly after the retrocession of Taiwan and remains influential in contemporary Taiwan.
    This study explored the formation and development of Hakka lineage mausoleums by analyzing the examples built by the clans in Hukou. Analyses based on field studies revealed that the formation of these mausoleums is related to Hakka cultural traits and elements such as frugality and diligence, the practice of second burials, belief in geomancy, clan organization, and ancestor worship. Moreover, the environments wherein the Hakka people settled, social change, funeral regulations, and the architectural techniques they use have greatly influenced the development of these mausoleums.
    The mausoleum structures and the rituals and operations performed therein reveal Hakka attitudes toward the dead and toward the relationship between heaven and man, and that Hakka clans are patrilineal. The Hakka have amended their traditional customs to correspond with social changes. For example, in recent years, they have exhibited awareness of feminism by allowing the inclusion of deceased unmarried female relatives into the mausoleums and on the clan tablets. Thus, these mausoleums have gradually developed into sacred spaces (in addition to family temples) that play a crucial role in unifying clan members annually on Tomb Sweeping Day.
    显示于类别:[客家社會文化研究所] 博碩士論文

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