|Abstract: ||電子科技日新月異，創新速度加快，產品的生命週期愈來愈短，而且市場需求不確定性愈來愈高，國際知名品牌大廠為降低成本，刺激消費，提升競爭力，而將附加價值較低且非其核心能力的製造、配銷、維修，逐漸委外 (Outsourcing) 生產，本身則專注在品牌行銷及產品研發等核心能力上。產業發展至今，經過了幾次重大改革，產品的生產模式逐漸由垂直整合轉為專業分工，在此潮流下促成了專業代工業的興起，台灣甚至被稱為電子產品的製造代工王國。|
EMS (Electronic Manufacturing Services) 廠商與台灣早期的OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer)、ODM (Original Design Manufacturer) 廠商最大的不同在於他們除了為客戶提供生產代工的服務外，也積極為客戶提供產品設計，後勤管理、運輸、產品維修、物料管理等周邊服務。傳統的OEM與ODM較多的是被動地依據客戶需求提供產能服務，由於服務內涵屬於較單純的組裝代工，因此競爭者較多，也比較容易被替代，但是EMS廠商則朝向提供知識與管理的服務，追求成為客戶的虛擬工廠，除了品牌與行銷業務外，EMS廠商可以提供高附加價值的整套一條鞭式的服務。
本研究以LH公司作為研究的個案，研究根據Michael Porter的五力分析模型與SWOT分析法，找出EMS電子代工業者的競爭優勢條件，並以 (1) 外部機會與威脅、內部優勢與劣勢的分析、(2) 經營策略的制定，這2個面向深入探討EMS廠商的競爭優勢、電子產業現況與未來的發展，希望對企業間分工合作的模式有進一步的瞭解。研究發現EMS廠商面對競爭的環境挑戰，必須提升現有的專業製程技術，其次是採低成本策略，最後則是提供客戶後段配銷、售後服務等後段價值鏈的運籌服務，以期做為EMS產業的未來發展提出多元化經營、垂直整合、加強生產製程能力，可成為企業的經營策略之參考等建議。;With rapidly changing electronic technology, faster innovation, progressively shorter product life cycles, and market demand increasingly beset with uncertainty, the internationally-renowned big brands have gradually turned to outsourcing for lower value-added and non-core manufacturing, distribution and maintenance, as a means of reducing costs, stimulating consumption, and increasing competitiveness, allowing them to focus on brand marketing, product development and other core competencies. Industrial development up to now has gone through several major reforms, with the production model gradually moving from vertical integration to disintegration. This trend has led to the emergence of the specialist OEM industry, and Taiwan has even been called the “electronic products manufacturing OEM kingdom.”
The biggest difference between EMS (Electronic Manufacturing Services) manufacturers and Taiwan′s earlier OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) and ODM (Original Design Manufacturer) manufacturers is that apart from providing customers with proxy production services, EMS manufacturers also actively provide customers with such peripheral services as product design, logistics management, transportation, product maintenance, and materials management. Traditionally, the majority of OEM and ODM companies have played a passive role of providing production services according to customer requirements. As the nature of the service was relatively simple proxy assembly work, many competitors became involved, but they were also relatively easy to replace. EMS vendors, however, are oriented toward providing knowledge and management services, seeking to become a virtual factory for the clients. In addition to brand and marketing businesses, EMS manufacturers can provide a full package of high value-added whip-type services.
In this research, LH Company is chosen as the subject of case study. The study is carried out according to Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model and SWOT analysis to identify the competitive advantages of EMS industry operators, and through (1) analysis of external opportunities and threats, and internal strengths and weaknesses, and (2) formulation of business strategy, exploring in-depth the competitive advantages of EMS companies, and the current status and future development of the electronics industry. The study helps gaining a better understanding of division of labor mode used among the EMS companies. The study found that EMS manufacturers had to improve their existing production process technologies, follow that with adoption of low-cost strategies, and lastly provide customers with final segment sales cooperation, after sales services and suchlike value chain logistic services, in order to bring out diversification, vertical integration, and increased production process capabilities for the EMS industry′s future development. The results of the study can serve as a reference of developing business strategies for the case company as well the other EMS manufacturers.