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    题名: 台南地區民間京劇活動之研究;nono
    作者: 曾子玲;Tseng,Tzu-lin
    贡献者: 中國文學系
    关键词: 京劇;台南;正音;廟會;戲曲;Peking Opera;Tainan;Mandarin Chinese;temple festivals;drama
    日期: 2014-08-28
    上传时间: 2014-10-15 14:33:30 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 台南地區民間京劇活動之研究中文摘要
    (1885~1970)
    京劇在台灣一直被認為是一個外來的劇種,而在台南,京劇早在日治時期就已融入民間的生活中,最大的特點是在寺廟中就有許多唱「正音」的館社,京劇(正音)與北管、南管、歌仔戲同樣,除了在野台以大戲的形式演出,也作為因應廟會活動的陣頭。台灣的京劇因日治時期隨著大批京班來台演出而風行起來,但在一般人的概念中,是為知識分子、名流士紳所喜愛。在台南地區,日治初期京劇就已經是民間的文娛活動,但在寺廟中活動的子弟多半是「窮孩子」,可見寺廟附設館社對於帶動京劇的流行起了很大的作用。
      除此之外,台南也與台北一樣,有多處演出京劇的戲院,不乏駐演的京班,這些職業劇團,從日治時期到戰後十幾年間,吸引了大批的看戲人潮。精彩的武戲,扣人心弦的連台本戲,除了標榜台語京劇的宜人京班吸引了大批京劇觀眾,更有來自上海的張家童伶班,以真刀真槍逼真的武戲演出,從台南開始,轟動全台。張家童伶班在台南駐演時,除了曾依附軍隊,也常與南部票房合作,參與台南民間票房的演出,使得一個附屬於寺廟的音樂社團,因為演出京劇而造成轟動。張家班南派武戲,加上北京教師京朝派唱腔,京劇以自由熱鬧的方式,可供變化的活動方式,融入民間生活。京劇在台南市,以活潑的型態融入民間生活中,不只在舞台上欣賞職業京班的演出、或票友自己上台彩演,還包括寺廟的活動中的清唱活動、與在酒樓茶館與藝妲的對唱表演,台南人在欣賞與演唱京劇時,似乎沒有語言上的隔閡。
    京劇是如何打破語言的隔閡進入人民的生活中的?本論文從京劇進入台灣之前台灣戲劇演出的狀況以及台南地區特殊的戲劇演出背景探討起,並透過各類演出團體──包括職業劇團、寺廟館社、軍方京劇票房、民間京劇票房的演出劇目,透過劇本類別,分析究竟甚麼樣的劇情與演出可以吸引觀眾進入京劇劇場?但當這些受歡迎的連台本戲,必須由真功夫才能呈現的舞戲劇本,如果重現在現代的京劇舞台上,真的能在吸引觀眾進入劇場嗎?回歸到京劇在花部勝出的原因,恐怕還是有自覺的演員可以引領觀眾進入京劇的藝術殿堂。
    ;The Research of Peking Opera in Tainan
    Abstract
    Peking Opera has generally been viewed as an outcomer in Taiwan. However, it was one of the common leisure activities among the locals in Tainan as early as in theJapanese Occupation era. One of the distinctive traits is that Mandarin Chinese was employed in the performance in a lot of Peking Opera clubs of the local temples. Like Beiguan-style Taiwanese opera, Nanguan-style Taiwanese opera and Taiwanese opera, Peking Opera sung in Mandarin Chinese was also invited in the parade in lots of temple festivalsas well as to perform formally on the open air stages. Peking Opera became popular in Taiwan when several Peking Opera troupes from China came to perform during the Japanese Occupation era. While it has been considered as the favored activities among the intellectuals and elites, the establishment of the Peking Opera clubs in a lot of temples indicated that it was also popular among the commoners in the early Japanese Occupation era in Tainan.
    Moreover, like Taipei, Tainan also had lots of theaters performing Peking Opera some of which contracted long-term Peking Opera troupes. These professionals attracted audience to the theaters with the exciting martial art drama and fascinating plots in series during the Japanese Occupational Era and the decades after the War. For example, Yi-Ren Peking Opera Troupes attracted the audience with Taiwanese lyrics while Chang’s Tong-ling Opera Troupes from Shanghai caused a great sensation throughout Taiwan when performing the martial art drama with real weapons. Chang’s Tong-ling Opera Troupes was more than an opera club of the temple, but it cooperated with the military and the local opera companies for more performances which made a hit in the theaters at that time. The lively and animated way of Chang’s martial art drama fromthe southern China and traditional Peking singing styles from the northern China brought a different sensation of performing art for the locals to appreciate. Besides the performance of the professional Peking Opera troupes from China and the local opera patrons, there were performances in cappella singing in a lot of temple festivals and in the performers’ duets in the teahouses and restaurants. Language did not seem to be barriers when the locals of Tainan enjoyed or performed Peking Opera.
    How did Peking Opera break the language barrier and become part of the local people’s daily life? The study explores this question from the background of Peking Opera before being introduced to Taiwan and the unique performing situation in Tainan. The study also analyzes the type of plots attracting the audience from the repertoires of different professional and amateur opera troupes, opera clubs of the temples and opera clubs in the military. It is interesting to investigate whether these popular repertoires which required genuine skills could also attract the modern audience. It is concluded that the sensational performance and skilled actors are important factors to attract the audience to the theaters of Peking Opera, which is also one of the reasons for Peking Opera to be ahead of the various Chinese operas.
    显示于类别:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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