湖坑客家話語音特點有:(一)聲母部分如: 非組、知章組存古的讀法、泥來母有條件相混、精莊知章合流為一套滋絲音。特殊讀音的說明有:章組讀f-， 匣母讀k-、kh-，曉匣讀s-，泥、日、疑母讀，日、影、云、以母的-聲母、云和以母讀v-聲母。(二)韻母部分如:「o：a」元音的對比現象、魚虞有别、蟹攝的元音層次分析、合口字開口化現象、陽聲與入聲韻的歸併。特殊讀音的說明有: 遇攝的-韻、效攝的-iu韻母。(三)聲調部分:陰去歸上聲調、上聲部分歸陰平現象、次濁入有陰入與陽入兩個走向。
Not many people know about the Hakka dialect from Yongding in Taiwan now because those who know how to speak it only say it at home and has rare documentary investigation in it as well. Thus, to know more about such Hakka dialect from the perspective of language, the paper will take Hukeng County, the Fujian Tulou Center in the South of Yongding County, Fujian as the on-site field survey place, to make the comparison and analysis of its phonetics and phrase.
The paper is divided into 6 chapters: Chapter One- introduction, to illustrate the Research motivation and, the overview the Hukeng Hakka, research methods, as well
as documentary investigations of the paper;Chapter Two,to create the phonetic system for the initials, finales of syllable and tone of Hakka dialect from Hukeng on the basis of the language data from field survey; Chapter Three, to make historical comparisons between the Hakka dialect from Hukeng and the ancient Chinese sounds, to then investigate the phonetic evaluation and development of Hakka dialect from Hukeng; Chapter Four, to summarize the phonetic features of the Hakka dialect from Hukeng; Chapter Five, to compare and analyze the phrases between Hakka dialect from Hukeng in Fujian and that of in Taiwan, and Chapter Six, to address the Introspections and suggestions in accordance with the conclusions.
The phonetic features of the Hakka dialect from Hukeng are as follows:
(1) on the aspect of initials: the words from Fei group , zhi group and Zhang group keep the pronunciation of ancient voiced initials, the words between Ni and Lai initial groups can do a conditional combination sometimes, and Jing group Zhuang group , zhi group, and Zhang group are combined together as the set of palatal sounds with the explanation of following special pronunciations,including the words from Zhang group is pronounced as “f-” , the words from xia initial groups is pronounced as “k- and k’-” initial and the words from xiao initial groups is pronounced as “s-” initial, the words from Yi initial, Ni and ri are pronounced as “” , the words from ri , ying, yun and Yi initial are pronounced as “-”initial, and the words from yun and yi initial group are pronounced as“ v-”initial.(2) On the aspect of finales of syllables: the contrast phenomenon of the vowel “:a”, the ancient separate yu rhyme, the analysis of the vowel level of Xie-classifier, the tendency of reading the word to be read in closed mouth in open mouth, and the combination of Yang and entering rhyme with the explanation of following special pronunciations, including rhyme “-”in yu-classifier, and “–iu” rhyme in Xiao-classifier. (3) On the aspect of tones:Yin departing is part of the rising tone , part of rising tones are belong to the high level , two trends of second-voiced entering tone: higher entering and lower entering.
In terms of the phrases, we will compare the phrases between the Hakka dialect from Hukeng (South), Fengcheng (central) and Gaopi (North) in Yongding and that of from the Xiucaiwo and Yangchou village, where the Yongding immigrant lived in Taiwan. After observed the phrase use of Hakka Dialect from Yongding in Taiwan and China, we found out that the Hakka dialect from its homeland like Hukeng and so on is not only remaining the same features as Hakka sub-dialects, but has developed its own unique phrases. The Hakka dialect Yongding immigrant spoke in Taiwan is not the original Hakka dialect from Yongding but is similar to Hakka dialect from Taiwan. Chapter Six-Conclusion, according to the field survey and research, we found that there are two different faces in the Hakka dialect from Yongding, which are the ancient tradition and innovative ones.