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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/66834


    Title: Tragic View of Life in Thomas Hardy′s Three Novels
    Authors: 吳彥臻;Wu,Yen-chen
    Contributors: 英美語文學系
    Keywords: 悲劇觀;自然;維多利亞時期;哈代
    Date: 2015-01-27
    Issue Date: 2015-03-16 15:47:48 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 過去學者對哈代悲劇觀的評論以及研究,皆針對他對自然的觀點和悲劇人物性格上的缺陷,進行諸多探討,這些都是讓我有興趣從事此論文撰寫的原因。從這些文獻中得以看出,哈代的悲劇觀跟維多利亞時期的社會息息相關。因此,當我們探究維多利亞時期的歷史背景、社會規範、婚姻制度、環境因素、階級結構、工業化、城市化和性別偏見時得以發現,哈代的悲劇觀可以從三個角度來理解:婚姻、環境和命運。
    婚姻這個主題探討的面像包括傳統婚姻習俗、販妻現象和性別的雙重標準。哈代認為傳統的婚姻制度違背了人性,導致假結婚及不幸婚姻的產生。接著,在維多利亞時期的社會裡販妻現象並不少見,最根本原因在於社會上存在著性別的雙重標準、不公平的離婚法以及跨大西洋人口交易的增加。環境方面,維多利亞時代的道德倫理,嚴格的社會規範和行為準則促成了自我否定的態度和自我毀滅性格,其結果是,人們違背自己的本性,壓抑自己的情感和行動。社經方面,工業革命加劇了社會階層差距。最後,宗教信仰不利於普通百姓,對宗教團體的猜忌和懷疑在小說裡顯而易見。第四章裡,哈代的悲劇觀含蓋個人命運、自然法則、諸事的重複和巧合。大自然被認為是冷漠和奸詐的,大自然的殘酷與冷漠影響著人類的命運,可能導致壞運苦果。另外,某些事件的復發,迫使人們一遍又一遍地經歷痛苦。接著探討哈代的悲劇人物和亞里士多德的悲劇觀點的相同點。最後一章歸結出哈代的悲劇觀是一種社會面的體驗,因為所有社會面是交織一起的,悲劇滲透到國家的歷史、人民的情緒、記憶、文化脈絡等。此外,哈代的悲劇觀訴諸於自身的理性和對真理的探究,他的悲劇觀取決於面對事情時的體認和質疑,其中,情感和靈性上的成長是最重要的。這就是為什麼他的悲劇人物表現出值得讚揚的強烈道德行為。另一方面,與其說哈代是悲觀的,不如視他的悲觀乃來自於他觀察人們對抗命運的痛苦及感受所引發的悲天憫人襟懷。
    ;The research for and writing of this thesis began with my interest in prior scholars’ comments on Hardy’s tragic view of life and past studies in which his views of nature as well as the character flaws of his tragic figures are discussed. Upon examination, it can be seen that Hardy’s tragic vision is closely connected with Victorian society. Hence, we probe into the historical background and social conventions, including the institution of marriage, the influence of the surrounding environment, class structure, industrialization, urbanization, and gender bias. It becomes clear that Hardy’s tragic vision can be understood from three angles: marriage, environment, and fate.
    The aspects explored in marriage include traditional marriage conventions, wife selling, and double standard gender roles. This writer’s view is that traditional marriage goes against human nature and its defects are what lead to sham marriages. Next, wife selling was not an uncommon occurrence in the Victorian society, the root cause being the double standard gender roles that existed in that society, its unfair divorce laws and the increase in trans-Atlantic population exchange. Concerning the environment, among the components of the Victorian morality, the strict social norms and codes of conduct contributed to the practice of self-denial and a self-defeating disposition, with the result that people repressed their feelings and acted against their own nature. The socio-economic environment of the industrial revolution worsened social class gaps. Finally, the religious environment was unfavorable to the common people, and suspicion and distrust towards organized religion was obvious. As expressed in my fourth chapter, Hardy’s tragic outlook encompasses the idea of the laws of nature, coincidence, repetition and fate. Nature is seen as indifferent and treacherous. Again, the recurrence of certain events forces people to go through the same bitter experience over and over again. In addition, Mother Nature’s cruelty and indifference can affect the fate of a character, thereby causing a change from good to bad fortune. Finally, his tragic vision echoes Aristotle’s ideas of tragedy. The last chapter concludes that Hardy’s tragic vision is a mode of experience. Tragedy permeates historical episodes, emotional memories, and cultural discourse, since all of society is interwoven. Hardy’s tragic vision resorts to rationality and reveals some aspects of truth. His tragic vision is decided by his awareness and questioning when encountering an event in which the emotional and spiritual development is what matters. That is why his tragic figures show strong ethically commendable behaviors. On the other hand, Hardy’s pessimism can be interpreted as arising from his sensitivity to people’s suffering against the uncaring force of destiny.
    Appears in Collections:[英美語文研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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