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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/66872

    Title: Composition of Public Expenditure and Government Production in a DSGE Model
    Authors: 林雪瑜;Lin,Hsieh-yu
    Contributors: 經濟學系
    Keywords: 政府雇用人力的支出;消費性政府支出;生產性政府支出;排擠效果;財政政策乘數;Government employment;government consumption and investment;crowding out;fiscal policy multipliers
    Date: 2014-11-12
    Issue Date: 2015-03-16 15:52:25 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本博士論文是利用一新興凱因斯動態隨機一般均衡(New Keynesian Dynamic stochastic General Equilibrium, DSGE)模型,探討不同類型的政府支出對總體經濟變數產生的影響,文中將政府支出類型區分為政府雇用人力的支出、消費性政府支出、以及生產性政府支出。模型建構上,除了包含壟斷性競爭市場、價格僵固性、消費習慣(habit formation)、調整成本等內涵,有別於既存文獻,本論文尚且考慮了兩個重要的特性,首先,為能進一步了解政府支出增加與私部門產生資源競爭的效果與其支出對GDP影響的全貌,本模型依循National Income and Product Accounts(NIPA)將政府視為一個生產單位—從私部門購買中間財與家計單位雇用人力,政府部門從事生產活動所創造GDP為生產階段的附加價值。因此,GDP包含私部門及公部門所生產的勞務及最終商品的市場價值。其次,強調工資僵固性在政策傳導過程中所產生的作用,許多文獻已證實將工資僵固性納入模型中可以較為合理的解釋經濟衝擊對總體變數的影響。然而在評估政府支出的效果上,此特性經常被忽略。藉由正確設定政府在經濟體系中所扮演的角色,與完整考量工資僵固性存在的特性,不僅可以呈現出本論文的結果與既存文獻的差異,也可以在模擬政策效果對經濟變數的影響上更為精確。本研究發現政府支出增加對經濟體的影響,將取決於五種效果分別為:財富效果(wealth effect)、需求效果(demand-enhancing effect)、勞動由私部門移入政府部門的效果(reallocation effect)、政府支出提升要素邊際產出的效果(productivity effect)、以及政府支出造成物價膨脹,進而影響利率的效果(substitution effect)。這五種效果的相對大小會因為政府支出的類型、政府生產過程中所使用的生產要素種類、市場價格及工資僵固程度、廠商與家計單位定價的能力、以及市場上存在non-Ricardian agents的比例等經濟體系結構的調整而改變。;This dissertation systematically examines the macroeconomic effects of various types of government expenditures, including the government employment, government consumption, and government investment, within a unified New-Keynesian DSGE model. A novel feature of this exploration is to consider a government production sector in which the government not only purchases goods from the private sector, but also hires labor from households in order to directly produce government output. This novelty is consistent with the National Income and Product Accounts in the sense that like a producer in the private sector, the government hires labor and accumulates capital and the value added of government production directly contributes to the economy-wide output. Thus, GDP is the sum of private output and the value added of the government production.
    In addition, to fill the gap in the literature, we shed light on the importance of wage rigidities, which are have insightful implications for the evaluation of policy effectiveness of government spending. This study indicates that there are, at least, five effects in governing the impacts of government spending -- the wealth effect, the demand-enhancing effect, the reallocation effect, the productivity effect and the intertemporal substitution effect. Per these five effects, the relationships between business cyclicity and government spending are also examined.
    Specifically, we shows that the impacts of government spending not only depend on the variety of government expenditure component and government spending share of purchases from the private sector, but also are responsive to market frictions (wage and price rigidities), market markups (price and wage markups), and the fraction of non-Ricardian agents.
    By means of a more sophisticated New Keynesian DSGE model, we not only explain why our results different from the existing studies, but also provide a more empirically convincing prediction to the policymakers and macroeconomists.
    Appears in Collections:[經濟研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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