慢性阻塞性肺病（COPD）是一種慢性發炎所造成的呼吸道阻塞疾病，除了本身的肺部效應外，還伴隨著顯著的肺外效應，如:營養不良、骨骼肌功能障礙、中樞神經系統損害等。近年研究顯示，慢性阻塞性肺病增加了對輕度認知障礙（MCI）的風險，而輕度認知障礙每年則約有10%至15%轉變成失智症。因此，本研究擬利用台灣全民健保研究資料庫之資料，針對50歲以上的病患探討慢性阻塞性肺病患是否比非慢性阻塞性肺病患增加失智症的風險。研究結果顯示，慢性阻塞性肺病患與非慢性阻塞性肺病患相比，慢性阻塞性肺病患有顯著增加失智症風險 (HR =2.05, 95% CI=1.88-2.22)。其中罹患阿茲海默症和非阿茲海默失智症的風險各為(HR =2.16, 95% CI=1.97-2.37)和(HR =1.64, 95% CI=1.35-1.98) ，均有顯著增加的風險。;Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by airway obstruction, in addition to the lungs effects itself, but also be accompanied by a significant extra-pulmonary effects, such as: malnutrition, skeletal muscle dysfunction, central nervous system damage, etc. Recent studies have shown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild cognitive impairment each year and about 10-15% into dementia. Therefore, this study intends to use the information in Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for patients over 50 years old to explore whether patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary increased risk of dementia than non-chronic obstructive pulmonary patients. The results showed that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary compared with non-chronic obstructive pulmonary patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly increases the risk of dementia (HR = 2.05, 95% CI= 1.88-2.22). Where the risk of suffering from Alzheimer′s disease and non-Alzheimer′s dementia each (HR = 2.16, 95% CI=1.97-2.37) and (HR = 1.64, 95% CI=1.35-1.98), were significantly increased risk.