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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/66943


    Title: 明憲宗朝西廠之研究
    Authors: 王亭雁;Wang,Ting-yen
    Contributors: 歷史研究所在職專班
    Keywords: 錦衣衛;東廠;西廠;明憲宗;汪直;Jinyi-wei;Dong Chang;Xi Chang;Hsien tsung of Ming;Wang Zhi
    Date: 2015-01-22
    Issue Date: 2015-03-16 16:01:42 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 明憲宗朝西廠之研究
    摘要
    本文以西廠為研究主題,探討明代皇帝為鞏固皇權,除了正統的司法制度外,還設立許多特殊偵查機構。首先,明太祖朱元璋(1328-1398)於洪武十五年(1382)設立錦衣衛,錦衣衛是皇帝的貼身侍衛,負責保護皇帝人身安全,但由於皇帝相當依賴錦衣衛,因此賦予他們巡查、緝捕之權。明成祖朱棣(1360-1424)則感於錦衣衛運作範圍以宮外為主,再加上擔心建文帝(1377-?)遺臣的反抗,於是於永樂十八年(1420)另外成立一個特殊機構—東廠,它是由宮中宦官組成,由於皇帝的寵信和依賴,因此即使東廠沒有法定上的司法權力,但仍然擁有偵緝、審訊、用刑之權,並得以介入司法審判,地位可說高於錦衣衛之上。

    至成化年間,由於「妖人李子龍」事件,使明憲宗成立一全新特殊機構—西廠,西廠以宦官汪直為首,擁有與錦衣衛、東廠同等權利,並得以監督錦衣衛和東廠。西廠成立後,對成化年間的政治社會造成不少混亂,其中還歷經二次立廢的過程,並於成化十八年(1482)三月正式被廢除。

    本文則欲深入研究西廠設立的緣由、職掌與運作過程、短暫存在的意義及其對明代在治安、正規司法體制及社會所造成的影響。



    關鍵字:錦衣衛,東廠,西廠,明憲宗,汪直。
    ;Abstract
    This article discusses topics about Xi-Chang, researching that emperors of Ming Dynasty established special units other than legitimate judicial system in order to consolidate their power. First, in Hongwu fifteen years (1382), the Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang ( 1328-1398) set up Jinyi-wei (Secret Service of the Imperial Court), a special unit of imperial bodyguard, who took charge of the emperor’s security. However, because the emperor was very depending on them, he granted them detective and arresting rights. During the rule of Emperor Zhu Di (1360-1424), concerning that the operation of Jinyi-wei was mainly outside of the palace and that the former left officials of Jianwen Emperor (1377~?) might rebel, in Yongle eighteen years (1420), Zhu Di set up another special unit –Dong Chang, which was formed by eunuchs in palace. Although Dong Chang didn’t own the legitimate judicial rights, they were granted rights to search, interrogate and torture; they could also intervene the judicial trials. Dong Chang was at a higher position than Jinyi-wei.
    During the Chenghua period, due to the rebellion “Li Zilong the enchanter,” Hsien-tsung of Ming Dynasty established a new special unit-Xi Chang. Led by eunuch Wang-zhi, Xi Chang owned the equal rights with Jinyi-wei and Dong Chang and could supervise the two of them. After the establishment of Xi Chang, it caused abundant chaos to politics and the whole society. Xi Chang was founded and disestablish twice during the process, and it was repealed in March in Chenghua eighteen years (1428).
    This article intends to research the origin of Xi Chang’s establishment, its duty, how it worked, the meaning of its short existence, and its influence on the public order, judicial system and the whole society in Ming Dynasty.

    Key words: Jinyi-wei, Dong Chang, Xi Chang, Hsien tsung of Ming, Wang Zhi
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所碩士在職專班 ] 博碩士論文

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