|Abstract: ||從 90 年代末期隨著油價攀升,全球航空業獲利不易,晚近的 30 年裡,就連全 球知名偉大的航空公也中箭落馬,原本的流程或商業模式,已完全失靈。包括美國聯 合航空(2002)、全美航空 ( 2004 )、西北航空 ( 2005 )、甚至達美航空 ( 2005 )、 紛紛宣布破產,在歐洲瑞士航空 ( 2002 )、亞洲也有日本航空 ( 2010 ) 也無法倖免, 面臨倒閉及破產。期間小型航空公司因週轉不靈而倒閉者,不計其數。|
儘管如此,航空業的創新成長依然精彩,從本文研究中,仍能找到年年獲利的優 異案例。包括廉價航空的始祖美國「西南航空」、從模仿西南起家成立的「捷藍航空」, 回頭看看傳統航空公司,也有佳作:其中以持續創新飛行體驗聞名的「維珍航空」, 成為高端客層航空公司跟進模仿的模型,與時尚旅行的趨勢創造者,地處中東阿聯酋 航空、亞洲的新加坡航空、大洋洲的紐西蘭航空,都在搭機體驗設計上,有著令人眼 睛為之一亮的創新,財務表現也可圈可點。得到底這些航空公司經營有道的精隨在哪 裡? 希望能從偉大的文獻理論中,找到可循與分析的脈絡。
21 世紀的創新大師 Clayton M Christensen 在 1997 年提出的破壞式創新理論, 可以解釋為什麼無時無刻不保持警覺的頂尖的企業,一直專心聆聽客戶聲音,積極投 資新科技,但是在面對科技與市場結構變遷時,仍喪失了既有的領導地位。原來許多 績優企業的經營模式多聚焦開發現有客戶的最需要、創造最大利潤的產品上,而失去 了競爭力。許多企業領航人,猶如身處五里霧中,無法看清「尚未消費的新市場」方 能有效創新成長的趨勢。2012 年 Vijay Govindarajan 與 Chris Trimble 針對企業跨 國經營新興國家市場所提出的逆向創新理論,也可以看到大師「破壞式創新」理論的 影子,同樣解析「未來的需在離家千里之外尋求」強調尚未消費的新市場才是王道。 「模仿是創新之母」日本早稻田大學教授井上達彥 2012 年提出「模仿創新模式」, 其中的「反面教材」與「自我否定」更是呼應著「破壞式創新」理論,用來解析航空 業創新發展與挑戰,發現幾項有趣的歸因關係,也成為解析航空業成功挑戰創新的重
Rising oil prices since the late 1990s has seen the global airline industry facing difficulties of earning profits. Even the world-leading airlines were also sacked; the original process or business model has become completely out of date. In America, United Airlines, US Airways, Northwest Airlines and Delta Airlines declared bankruptcy in 2002, 2004, 2005 respectively. European carrier Switzerland Airlines and Japan Airlines in Asia were unable to escape the same fate and bankrupted in 2002 and 2010 respectively. Moreover, countless airlines across the industry closed down because of cash flow problems.
Nevertheless, the aviation industry′s innovation growth is an eye opener. From this study, we found encouraging cases. These include “Southwest Airlines”, the founder of American low-cost airline, followed by the success of "JetBlue", even the legacy carriers such as "Virgin Atlantic Airways" which is famous for its innovation in flight experience, then comes “The Emirates”, the front runner in the stylish travel trend, as well as “Singapore Airlines” and “Air New Zealand”. All of these airlines have remarkable financial performances. What is the essence of their business tactic? It may be easier to understand by matching great literature theories, then extract their key elements of success in which one is able to follow.
Clayton M Christensen, the Innovation Master of the 21st century, developed a Disruptive Innovation Theory in 1997, which explained why leading enterprises has been attentive to the voices of their customers, invested in new technologies, but finally lost their existing leadership. Many blue-chip companies focused on developing the products that suited their existing customers rather than focusing on create the most profitable ones, thus losing their edge of competitiveness.
Vijay Govindarajan and Chris Trimble urged the so-called international companies that started their globalization efforts by removing expensive features from their established product, in an attempt to sell these de-featured products in the developing world. Reverse innovation, on the other hand, leads to products which are created locally in developing countries, tested in local markets, and, if successful, then upgraded for sale and delivery in the developed world. Emerging reverse innovation theory proposed, we can see the shadow of the master "Destructive Innovation" theory.
There is a saying that "Imitation is the mother of innovation", which echoed perfectly with the “imitation innovation mode” that Professor Inoue Tatsuhiko from Waseda University had proposed in 2012, in which the "negative example" and
"self-denial" is responding to the "destructive innovation" theory, used to resolve the aviation industry innovative developments and challenges, several attributions found and explained the best way of innovation with which aviation industry must do to keep thriving.
Key words: Airlines,aviation,innovation