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    题名: 全球光罩產業之SCP分析
    作者: 楊雲龍;Yang,Yun-long
    贡献者: 高階主管企管碩士班
    关键词: 光罩;微影製程;寡佔;專業半導體光罩廠;自製光罩廠;結構-行為-績效;前四大廠商市場佔有率指標;賀氏指標;Photomask;Photolithography;oligopoly;merchant mask shops;captive mask shops;SCP;CR4;HHI
    日期: 2015-06-29
    上传时间: 2015-07-31 01:30:58 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 光罩是微電子產品微影製程中的工作母板,是截至目前為止能讓大部份科技產品便宜的、快速的複製和有效率規模化的最重要工具。過去幾十年來專業半導體光罩業者在半導體先端技術牽動整個產業結構的變遷下已由過去全球數十家業者組成的完全競爭時代整併成以三、四家光罩業者為主的寡佔市場時代。然而在寡佔市場的這些專業半導體光罩廠(merchant mask shops)卻只佔了整體半導體光罩需求量的一半左右,一線晶片廠的自製光罩廠(captive mask shops)佔了另一半的市場需求。2010年至2013年全球半導體光罩市場規模約有30億美元左右,2014年成長至32億美元;平面顯示器光罩市場規模於2014年成長至5.7億美元,預估2015~2018年的需求量約以年複合成長率3.6%的速度成長,而產值也會增長至2018年的6.3億美元。
    本研究以經濟學者E.S.Mason,J.Bain的「結構-行為-績效」理論
    (Structure – Conductive – Performance,以下簡稱SCP )架構來分析全球光罩產業的市場結構、廠商行為和績效,並佐以個案分析來探討國內外專業光罩廠商的營運模式,有別於過去對光罩產業的研究僅局限於技術和管理層面的探討。研究結果發現半導體和平面顯示器光罩產業的CR4都高於80%,HHI(10000s)數值都超過1900,皆屬於高度寡佔。然而光罩產業雖屬寡占性行業但是又不同於大宗物資行業可以在寡佔情況下進行價格哄抬或勾結行為,因為專業光罩廠會受到自製光罩廠(如台積電等)的價格節制形成類似完全競爭的市場平衡。另外由個案分析我們了解到藉由強大的財務為後盾進行全球化購併與佈局是個案公司能成為全球最大專業光罩廠的重要策略之一。
    ;Photomasks are the key tools in the photolithography processes in the microelectronic industries. Apply photomasks in the processes have been the most cheapest、fastest and efficiently method for large-scale productions. Over the past several decades,photomask markets have been changed from monopolistic competition to oligopoly markets caused by acquiring or merging among the merchant mask shops, only three to four main shops can catch up the 1st tier semiconductor chip makers’paces on the advanced technology nodes. Worldwide photomask revenue about semiconductor read about USD 3 billions from Year 2010 to 2013 each and reported USD 3.2 billions in 2014, merchant mask shops and captive mask shops got shares one half and one half. Photomasks for flat panel display market read about USD 570 millions in 2014, and was estimated USD 630 millions in 2018.
    This research applied the theory of Structure –Conductive –Performance (SCP) that was developed by E.S.Mason,J.Bain to analyze the Photomask industries. Market structure、manufacturer behavior 、 operation performance and case study all have been discussed. It is different from some photomasks literatures which all concentrated on the technologies or managements’researches.
    This study found semiconductor and flat panel photomask industries both are belong to oligopoly markets, CR4 and HHI(10000s) values show more than 80% and 1900 respectively. Nevertheless, the photomask industries are different from
    the normal commodities which suppliers can drive up prices or collusion under the oligopoly circumstances. Captive mask shops (such as TSMC) are going to balance the market prices by releasing their products to the market if the merchant mask shops drive up the prices unreasonably.
    Finally, we can share one of the strategies here after company case study. “Good financial back up can support companies’acquiring 、 merging or capital investing behaviors”.
    显示于类别:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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