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|Issue Date: ||2015-09-23 11:50:20 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||摘 要 |
本論文共分六章，第一章為緒論，說明研究動機與目的、研究方法與步驟，相關文獻及調查方言點地理位置概況。第二章為語音系統說明，將田野調查的語料整理出曼谷梅縣客家話聲、韻、調之語音系統。第三章將曼谷的梅縣客家話與中古音比較，探討曼谷的梅縣客家話語音演變跟發展，這點與原鄉的音韻表現並無太大不同。第四章歸納出曼谷的梅縣客家話語音特點，值得一提的是，非組聲母的在地化，許多在大陸原鄉和臺灣四縣客家話還保有重唇音的字，在泰國曼谷的重唇發音已不復存在。第五章就曼谷的梅縣客家話、大陸的梅縣客家話、臺灣的四縣客家話詞彙作比較分析，發現曼谷的詞彙因為生活環境條件之不同，而新增許多原鄉及臺灣四縣客家話所沒有的詞彙，有些詞彙出現詞形已經改變，例如熱水泉(溫泉)、天河洗甲(下大雨)、化學袋(塑膠袋)、匣包(皮包)、九皇齋(重陽節)。再者，泰國因為幅員遼闊，又為多民族國家，各種語言長時期頻繁接觸之下，各族群的語言根據其系統自有不同的變化，其中曼谷的梅縣客家話詞彙變化甚多，有許多語言接觸後的借詞，比較特別的有合璧詞現象，有來自客家話與泰語組合的合璧詞蝦醬，曼谷的梅縣客家人會說成「蝦醬□□ha11 tsio55 kap21 pit5」(「kap21 pit5」是泰語「蝦醬」的意思)、小芭蕉在泰國曼谷的梅縣客家人說成「□□蕉na33 wa33 tsiau33」(泰語香蕉或芭蕉都說kue31，泰語稱小芭蕉kue31 na33 wa33，「na33 wa33」是泰語稱這小芭蕉)，有來自客家話與英語組合的雞湯(「雞湯sun55」，sun55來自英語soup)。有部份移借的借詞，例如一元，曼谷的梅縣客家人把一元說成「一□it21 pat21」(「pat21」是泰語「銖」的意思)、拜老爺(拜神，來自潮州話)、馬蹄(荸薺，來自粵語)、家婆(婆婆，來自曼谷的豐順客家話)、神童(乩童，來自曼谷的豐順客家話)，與完全移借的借詞，例如落神(起乩，來自曼谷的豐順客家話)、酸辣蝦肉湯(泰語稱酸辣蝦肉湯「tu53 iam11 ku53」，蝦肉泰語說ku53)、酸辣雞肉湯(泰語酸辣雞肉湯說「tu53 iam11 kai11」，雞肉泰語說kai11)。還因為氣候炎熱生活環境改變，造成曼谷的梅縣客家話詞彙消失、新增(含改變)，詞彙變異程度甚於音韻，例如颱風、地震、冬作收割等詞彙因環境改變而消失，另外，也因為生活環境改變而新增了蝦醬、魚醬、椰漿等客家生活本沒有的詞彙。第六章為結論，就本論文研究結果，歸納出語音及詞彙因曼谷內部有許多不同語言，語言互相接觸影響後，語音變化雖然不大，但詞彙表現卻相當豐富。
This thesis aims to study the Meixian Hakka of Bangkok, Thailand, and to discuss the Meixian immigrants’ different language performance in terms of sounds and words after they migrate to Bangkok, Thailand, a background isolated from their native land for a long time. In addition to Meixian Hakka, there are also some branches of Hakka from other towns such as Fengshun, Xingning, and Dapu in Bangkok, Thailand. These Hakkas are exposed to and have influence on each other in Bangkok, Thailand. Also, there is also the Teochiew dialect which came to Bangkok even earlier (in the seventeenth century). All of the immigrants, no matter what mother tongue they speak, share the language of Thai. Many interesting changes are created after these languages are frequently exposed to one another.
This thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter One, the introduction, is to specify the study motive, object, method, procedure, related documents, as well as the general introduction to the geographical location of the surveyed dialects. Chapter Two is a description of the phonetic system of the sound, rhyme, and tone of the Meixian Hakka, Bangkok, which is concluded from the corpus of field trips. Chapter Three is a comparison between the Meixian Hakka, Bangkok, and the middle Chinese to discuss the sound evolvement and development of the Meixian Hakka. As far as this point is concerned, there is little difference from the sound performance of the native land. Chapter Four is to sum up the sound features of the Meixian Hakka. What’s worth mentioning is the localization of labiodental initial consonants. Many Hakkas in the native land of China and the Sixian Hakka in Taiwan still preserve the labial sounds, which do not exist in Bangkok, Thailand. Chapter Five is a comparison and analysis of lexicons between the Meixian Hakka in Bangkok, the Meixian Hakka in Mainland China, and the Sixian Hakka in Taiwan. Due to the different living environments, in Bangkok there have been many new lexicons which are not included in the Hakkas of the native town and Sixian. And some inflections have changed, such as re shui quan (wen quan), tian he xi jia (xia da yu), hua xue dai (su jiao dai), xia bao (pi bao), and jiu huang zhai (chong yang jie). In addition, Thailand is a nation with vast territory and many nationalities. Many languages are frequently used and exposed to each other, they have changed based on their systems. Among them, the lexicons of the Meixian Hakka in Bangkok change a lot. The loanwords after being exposed to other languages feature combined words. Some come from the combination of Hakka and Thai. For example, they call xia jiang (shrimp sauce) “蝦醬□□ha11 tsio55 kap21 pit5” (“kap21 pit5” means xia jiang in Thai.) The Meixian Hakka call xiao ba jiao (small plantain) “□□蕉na33 wa33 tsiau33” (In Thai, bananas and plantains are both called kue31. In Thai, small plantains are called kue31 na33 wa33.) Ji tang (chicken soup) comes from both Hakka and English (“ji tang sun55”, sun55 comes from the English word, soup.) Some are loanwords which borrow some part, the Meixian Hakka in Bangkok call yi yuan (one dollar) “一□it21 pat21” (pat21 means the money unit in Thai),such as bai lao ye (bai shen, from Teochew), ma ti (bi ji, from Cantonese), jia po (po po, from the Fengshun Hakka of Bangkok), shen tong (ji tong, from the Fengshun Hakka, Bangkok). Some loanwords borrow the original words completely, such as luo shen (qi ji, from the Fengshun Hakka, Bangkok), suan la xia rou tang (Thai calls it “tu53 iam11 ku53”. Xia rou is called ku53 in Thai.), suan la ji rou tang (Thai calls it “tu53 iam11 kai11.” Ji rou is called ku53 in Thai.) Because the hot weather and the changes of living surroundings, the lexicons of the Meixian Hakka are gradually lost and added (changed). The changes in lexicons are even more than the sounds. For example, the lexicons such as tai feng (typhoon), di zhen (earthquake), dong zuo shou ge (winter harvest) disappear as a result of the environmental changes. In addition, the environmental changes also cause some new lexicons to be added to the languages such as xia jiang (shrimp sauce), yu jiang (fish sauce), and ye jiang (coconut cream). Chapter Six is the conclusion to sum up that due to many different languages in Bangkok and their mutual influence, the sounds of the Meixian Hakka do not change a lot, but it does become various in terms of lexicons.
Keyword：Meixian Bangkok, Meixian Hakka, language contact, loanword, vocabulary comparison
|Appears in Collections:||[客家研究碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文|
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