隨著全球暖化的影響，溫室效應日益嚴重，造成氣候異常極端，節能減碳與永續等議題逐漸受到各國重視，各行各業亦開始實行碳足跡之計算，即經由碳盤查過程得知產品生命週期所產生之二氧化碳量，並從中尋求減碳方式。國內營建產業亦不例外，於民國101年起於蘇花改工程實施首例工程碳管理工作，計算工程中之機具、材料與運輸等二氧化碳排放量。然而營建業客製化產品的特性使得每個營建工程設計與施工皆不相同，加上營建工地及其各項作業皆為臨時性，不若製造業工廠標準化製程，因此常發生同一機具(如挖土機)在同一工區內為多個工項所共享，甚至會在不同工程之工區間來回使用，凡此種種皆提高了營建施工階段機具操作與移運耗油盤查之困難度。 本研究嘗試應用電腦模擬可建模來模擬營建實際施工作業的特性，模擬各項機具於施工時操作與移運之耗油，以輔助營建工程施工階段碳盤查之進行。本研究以河川堤防工程之混凝土坡面工為研究對象，先依據工地現場所使用機具與施工作業順序建立CYCLONE電腦模型擬，再輸入現場蒐集之各項作業耗時資料，經過模擬後取得各項機具之耗油量與碳排放。同時，本研究亦針對該工地進行施工碳盤查，蒐集其實際施工耗油量，再與模擬結果進行比較。結果顯示兩者之整體作業時間與耗油量差距皆在5%以內，但從模擬結果可得知各工項二氧化碳排放量、機具二氧化碳排放量與運輸二氧化碳排放量，可以有效量測同一機具於不同工項間作業時間與耗油量分配之比例，輔助營建施工階段機具耗油碳盤查之進行。 ;With the global warming and climate change problems, countries all over the world are putting more and more efforts in reducing the greenhouse gas emission to ensure the sustainable development of the earth. As a result, many industries are doing their part to try to disclose the carbon footprint of their products by auditing the carbon emission throughout the lifecycle of a product. With no exception, the construction industry also begins to audit the carbon emission throughout the lifecycle of a construction project. Nonetheless, unlike many manufacturing products, every construction project is custom made and built in different site condition. More than often construction equipment is shared by various tasks in operations in a construction site. To make things worse, construction equipment in occasions is shared in several construction project sites. They all make the auditing of the operating time as well as oil consumption of a construction machine for the entire project as well as for the individual tasks in the operation more difficult.
The research tries to take the advantage of computer process simulation to assist in auditing the carbon emission of a construction project in its building phase. The concrete construction of a river bank project is used as an example in this study. A simulation model according to the in-situ operating sequence with different machines was build first. Time duration of various tasks in the operation was then collected on site and input into the model for running the simulation. In the meantime, actual construction time and oil consumption were collected on site as well. The simulation results, including total project duration and oil consumption were compared to the actual ones for validation of the model. The difference between these two is within 5% that demonstrates a sound result. With the simulation model and results, the total oil consumption of a construction machine, as well as the proportion of them used in different tasks can be measured. By employing the computer process simulation it greatly improves the effectiveness of carbon auditing of a construction project for its building phase.