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    题名: 校園植物調查及分類在環境教育上的意義 —以桃園市兩所國中為例;Campus Plant Survey and Classification on Environmental Education Implication—Take Two Junior High Schools in Taoyuan City for An Example
    作者: 唐筱嵐;Tang,Hsiao-lan
    贡献者: 環境工程研究所
    关键词: 校園植物;環境教育;原生及特有種;校園植物營造;Campus plants;Environmental education;Native and endemic species;Campus plant build-up
    日期: 2015-07-22
    上传时间: 2015-09-23 15:29:09 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 校園植物調查及分類可讓學生方便和有效獲得植物知識而達成環境教育目標,是一件有意義的工作。基於前人研究侷限在中、南部,本研究選定北部校園,考量校園植物營造現況,探討台灣原生、特有、外來種的栽植分布現況,並討論栽種植物與環境教育相關程度,以選定植物實際觀察花期和果期是否出現受劇烈天氣影響?最後提出校園植物營造規畫建議。
    研究對象選定桃園市兩所國中,現場調查得知大成國中的校園植物共計86科161屬193種,建國國中共計62科114屬125種。原生種植物僅佔大成國中所有植物9.8 %,建國國中則是12 %;特有種植物佔比更低,大成國中為3.1 %,建國國中更低至0.8 %。
    前人研究與本研究發現學校常見喬木,與遮蔭、莊嚴氣息、淨化空氣品質有關;惟中、南部多有栽植的「欖仁樹、大葉桃花心木」,桃園兩校卻無栽種,應與這些植物喜愛高溫有關。喬木種類建國國中較豐富,灌木大成國中較豐富,僅大成國中有營造水生棲地,這顯示校方經營哲學。
    「誘蝶植物」具有提供蜜源和蝴蝶幼蟲食草的功能,「誘鳥植物」的果實常見有鳥類佇留,「綠籬植物」則多為萌芽力或分枝力強,耐修剪的灌木;本研究探討的植物「環境教育」內容,主要聚焦於淨化空氣、水質,或抵抗空氣污染,或耐環境變遷,或固砂、固土,或驅蟲等。
    近年來天氣變化大,惟所觀察植物在研究期間,並無發現與文獻所提花期與果期有落差。兩校植物與教材配合度分析發現:大成國中配合度最高版本為南一版,約25 %;建國國中則為康軒版,約23 %。此外,本研究提出國中生學習校園植物的有效方式。
    為延伸本研究成果,本研究建議加強校園植物解說,配置適當人力管理校園植物,適度地營造適合該校地理、環境教育、採用教材內容、當地氣候及人文的台灣原生種與特有種的植物,並區分喬木與水生植物專區,以恢復校園生態系統平衡。;Campus plant survey and classification can provide students an effective way to gain plant knowledge conveniently and reach the goal of environmental education and thus a meaningful work. Considering previous studies were focused on the campus plants located on central and southern parts of Taiwan, this study chose schools located on northern Taiwan for investigation. The objectives aim to understand the distribution of native, endemic, and foreign plants, discuss the relationship between planting and environmental education, observe the influence on flowering and fruiting stages from extreme weather, and propose suggestions on the planning of campus plant build-up.
    From the field survey on two junior high schools in Taoyuan City, Da-Cheng Junior High School has a total of 86 families, 161 genera, and 193 species in contrast to a total of 62 families, 114 genera, and 125 species of plants in Jian-Guo Junior High School. The percentages of native species to total are 9.8 % and 12 % in Da-Cheng and Jian-Guo Junior High Schools, respectively; while that of endemic plants are even smaller with 3.1 % and 0.8 % in Da-Cheng and Jian-Guo Junior High Schools, respectively.
    Trees are commonly appeared on campus which is related to the need of shadowing, stately appearance, and capability of purifying air quality based on the findings of previous and the present studies. However, this study finds that frequently occurring trees such as Terminalia catappa and Swietenia macrophylla in central and southern parts of Taiwan are not planted on the campus of the two schools which is probably due to these plants favoring warmer weather. Distinctions between the two observed campuses are more plants in Jian-Guo and a larger number of shrubs and an additional aquatic habitat in Da-Cheng which shows the philosophy of school’s management style.
    Certain trees have capability to provide a nectar source for bees and attract caterpillars and butterflies while others possess fruits that attract birds to perch on their branches. On the other hand, shrubs have the merits of readily sprouting, germinating, and bifurcating, as well as suitable for pruning to a desired shape. On the purpose of environmental education, the plants were investigated on their capability of purifying air and water qualities, persisting to air pollution, adapting to environmental change, fixing sand or topsoil, and repelling insect naturally.
    Although weather conditions varied greatly in recent days, however, the flowering and fruiting stages of target trees were observed in accordance with that written in the literature. In terms of campus plants that match with published materials, Da-Cheng agrees to Nan-Yi edition best with about 25 % of campus plants appearing in the textbook while Jian-Guo matches with Kang-Xuan edition best with around 23 % of the campus plants listed. In addition, this study proposes an effective way for students of junior high schools to learn campus plants.
    To extend the results of this study, suggestions are made to enhance campus plant elaboration and allocate needy personnel to manage campus plants. Moreover, grow native and endemic species that can adapt to school geography, environmental education, the adopted teaching materials, and local weather and culture to reach a balancing ecological system are suggested.
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