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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/69437


    Title: 從邊緣崛起:新竹工業區伯公信仰的公廟化趨勢;Rise Up from the Edge: Trend of Land Patron Saint Belief Turned Temple in the Hsinchu Industrial Park
    Authors: 何萬滄;ho,wan-tsang
    Contributors: 客家研究碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 新竹工業區;伯公;公廟化;後祭祀圈
    Date: 2016-01-27
    Issue Date: 2016-03-17 20:37:37 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 新竹工業區(舊稱鳳山崎)是位於大眉庄(竹北)、紅毛港庄(新豐)、大湖口庄(湖口)、新埔庄(新埔)等四區交界的地區、屬於生產力偏低的低度開發農庄。清代采訪冊形容鳳山崎:山上一帶平原,周廣三、四十里;地高而燥,率多荒園,庄內居民人口稀少,錯落結盧而居。可見到清代末期,新竹工業區的區塊發展落後,是缺乏開發的農牧之地。
    在日治初期,鳳山崎才由望高樓、鳳山崎、竹高屋、寶斗屋等四個地理區塊發展成為一個「鳳山崎庄」,加上番仔湖地區,重要性開始逐步提升,日軍看上其地處高台而強徵為軍事用地,而這個徵用開始加速它的開發,到了國民政府來台,再次擴大軍事用地,民國六十二年開發為湖口工業區,使鳳山崎轉型為工業化與居住的區塊,使它逐漸自成為工業與生活的中心的地區。
    隨著一百年歷史的轉變,新竹工業區的地位甚至超越大湖口庄的老湖口與紅毛港庄的新庄子,長期來看,甚至更取代新豐鄉成為政教中心的趨勢。新竹工業區不再是邊陲區,他更成為屬於自己生活中心。先前的研究者,例如施添福、羅烈師、林玉茹等學者,是以清代為主要研究時間範圍,因此沒能正視這個上升或變遷的地方社會,張二文、吳聲淼二位學者對土地公的研究論文,對美濃、北埔地區在墾拓時期伯公的功能兼具保護神的時代意義論述,何瑞玲雖然對鳳山崎地區做家族開發史作研究論述,但對新竹工業區客家伯公信仰的地方史缺乏研究,我站在這些學者的研究基礎上,繼承這些學者的研究成果來補足這一塊論述。
    本論文將從清領時期客家先民來到鳳山崎地區開墾,受到地理、氣候、人文、時代背景中,伯公在客家先民生活中扮演的角色及重要性,到從農業時代到工業時代,居民組成的改變、土地公角色的改變,土地公廟與型制的改變,宮廟文化傳承的隱憂,從田邊角落一方之神,在工業區徵收合併後,扛起工業區內無天神大廟重責大任,變成地方誇越村落的公廟,土地公成為工業區信仰中心的新角色,做完整的研究分析。
    工業區伯公信仰在三十餘年中發生劇烈改變,工業區徵收造成伯公廟的集中,環境封閉與工業區大量居住人口集中,是伯公廟公廟化的因素;伯公廟公廟化使建築型制與管理制度化;伯公廟管理者與地方政治勢力的特殊依存關係,關係著伯公廟的發展;伯公廟祭祀活動是爐主與首事的舞台;管理制度保守與封閉,宮廟文化是否有跟上時代腳步,並沒有直接相關。工業區的伯公信仰公廟化,住宅區移入大量就業人口,工商金融交通業蓬勃發展,使新竹工業區自成一個生活中心,不再是落後的邊緣地區。
    ;The Hsinchu Industrial Park (formerly Fengshanqi) is located in an area where Damei Village (Zhubei), Hongmaogang Village (Xinfeng), Dahukuo Village (Hukuo), and Xinpu Village (Xinpu) intersect, it’s part of a low development farmland where productivity is relatively low. The history of Qing dynasty described Fengshanqi to be the following: plain on the mountaintops, surrounded by 30 to 40 miles of vast space; high altitude but dry, with high frequencies of abandoned land; low population density on the farms, residents live in huts scattered throughout the area. It was evident that at the end of the Qing dynasty the development in the Hsinchu Industrial Park area was lagging behind, it was a farmland that lacked development. During the early part of Taiwan under Japanese rule, Fengshanqi Village, by combining the four geographical areas of Wanggaolou, Fengshanqi, Zhugaowu, and Baodouwu, got more and more importance. The Japanese military fancied its high location and recruited the area by force in order to use it as a military base. In 1973, this area was developed into the Hukuo Industrial Park, allowing Fengshanqi to transition into an area that’s both industrial and residential, gradually making this area the center of industrialization and living. Through a hundred years of historic changes, there has been a large migration of employment population into the residential areas. Now the Hsinchu Industrial Park has surpassed the two old centers of Hukou County and Hisnfeng County. Industrial commerce, banking, transportation, police and fire departments, and education flourished, naturally make the Hsinchu Industrial Park a living center, and no longer a border area. Previous researchers, scholars such as Shi Tianfu, Lo Lieshi, and Lin Yuru, have primarily focused on the Qing dynasty as their research timeframe, which was why they did not face this local society that has been on the rise and changing. Even though He Ruiling has published her research paper on the family development history in the Fengshanqi area, it was still lacking in research in the local history of the Hakka land patron saint faith in the Hsinchu Industrial Park. Using the research by these scholars as my foundation, I will carry on the research results by these scholars and make up the deficiency of the dissertation in this area. This thesis will provide a complete research and analysis, starting with the Hakka ancestors who came to the Fengshanqi area clearing the area for cultivation during the Qing dynasty. The Land God (Tudi Gong; Bag Bong) played an important role in the lives of the Hakka ancestors, helping them to overcome the problem of geography, weather, and planting. It will continue with exploring the changes of the Land God and its temple, as the area transitioned from an agricultural era to an industrial one. This thesis will also look at how the Land God went from being a corner local God of a farmland to a cross­villages temple and took on a new role as the center of faith in the industrial area.
    Appears in Collections:[客家研究碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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