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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71677


    Title: 廣州客家族群及非洲裔移民文化權探究
    Authors: 許晶晶;Jingjing,Xu
    Contributors: 客家社會文化研究所
    Keywords: 客家族群;非洲裔移民;中國;文化權;Hakka ethnicity;African immigrants;China;cultural riights
    Date: 2016-07-22
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 13:43:38 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 文化權作為一個法律概念被提及和關注,始於1966年12月聯合國大會通過《經濟、社會和文化權利國際公約》。它雖是人權的一部份,但相對於其他類型的人權,比如公民權、政治權和經濟權利而言,在範圍、法律內涵和可執行性上最不成熟。因此,文化權常被稱作人權中的「不發達部門」,成為一種「被忽視的人權」。自1990年代以來,西方民族國家已經經歷了一連串的「權力革命」(rights revolution),不斷地在各種新的權力訴求中,思索著歸屬于排斥的問題。在這些不同的權力概念中,其中一個不算新奇,卻始終無法受到重視的權力概念:文化權,也隨著跨國移民與文化穿越國界的情況不斷增加,多元文化主義的興起,而變得日漸重要。(王俐容,2012:40)在國際人權文獻內,文化權利是與公民、政治、經濟、社會權利並列,這些權利之間具有不可分性,要求各國必須負起履行保障文化權利的責任。同時由於文化權利內容具有個人面向與集體面向,因此,文化權利也成為各國少數族群爭取集體權利的重要主張。Will Kymlicka(1995:27-31)將少數族群權利分為自治權(self-government rights)、特別代表權(special representation rights)以及多元族群權(polyethnic rights),前兩者是指地域的自主性治理以及政治參與權,後者指的是文化權。(施正鋒,2008:6)
      隨著文化權保障的規約成為全球性的共識,以及1971年中國加入聯合國以及1978年改革開放後越來越積極融入全球社會,加之國民也隨著中國經濟的發展,物質生活水平不斷提高,對精神文化的需求和對文化權利的訴求也日益增長,
    因此官方陸續承認了許多國際性規約在中國的效用,越來越重視公民的文化權利,作為一個社會主義國家,對公民個人文化權利會有一些基本保障,但不同於西方國家的民主體制,中國威權式的政治體制在對於文化權的保障和落實上與民主國家有很大差異,中國對公民文化權的重視主要以經濟論述主導文化政策,強調文化消費,體現國家的意識形態,對於言論自由等權利避而不談,同時對於集體權利的保障對象十分局限,很多不被承認的少數族群作為一個集體,他們的集體權利未被看見。
      中國政府宣稱中國是一個多民族國家,其對被承認和認可的少數民族權利已有立法措施。但中國政府族群政策的對象只針對已被承認和認可的少數民族,而對其他少數群體,其權利保護並未得到官方認可,以漢族為例,漢族並不是一個同質性的群體,在廣東省,就有廣府、潮汕和客家三個民系,彼此之間的文化、語言等都不相同,但在政府和官方看來,只有漢族這一概念,因此,客家的文化權利並未得到重視;除此之外,隨著全球化的深入,越來越多外籍人士長期居留中國,從上世紀80年代起,非洲裔人士源源不斷來到中國,多半居住在廣東一帶,以做生意為主,有些人逐漸會說一口流利的廣東話。目前,在廣州小北路、廣花三路一帶,已經形成了非洲人居住區,(劉麗朵,2007)由於中國人根深蒂固的種族歧視思想,他們在中國所受到的對待遠遠不如歐美籍外籍人士,在政府和官方看來他們在當地的文化權利也並不是所要考慮的。聯合國宣言中對於少數族群權利保障對象的範圍,經歷了從種族到,族群、民族、宗教及語言的少數群體到非公民的移民這個過程,按照聯合國對於保障少數族群權利範圍的擴及,中國的客家族群、非洲裔移民與少數民族同屬少數族群,但當前政府並沒有制訂任何法律,來保障並解決客家族群以及非洲裔移民所面對的這些問題。
      由於客家族群、非洲裔移民的特質以及中國的國情,對於Kymlicka少數族群權利的前兩者自主治理及政治參政權,實現困難,因此,本論文主要對其文化權利進行探究。本文將以廣州市為例,首先考察西方上文化權和族群權的相關理論,接著探討中國文化權的特性,然後採用觀察法、訪談法和問卷法相結合的方式,探究廣州境內客家族群以及非洲裔實際的文化權狀況。
      對於客家族群,在參與文生活上,政府會有一些基本的文化活動讓其參與,從而在一定程度上對於個人的文化權利有所保障,但這些活動的品質都不是很高,也沒有特別重視是否蘊含客家文化內涵,因而對客家的集體文化權也就未考慮,客家文化面臨廣府文化和中央北方文化的雙重夾擊;對於非洲裔族群,政府允許其穆斯林在清真寺進行祭拜,允許其戴頭巾,對他們的文化權利沒有阻止,但是整個社會對於他們是污名化的,而政府也放任媒體對其羞辱。
      因而,透過研究發現,中國政府目前對於公民的文化權是有一定程度的保障的,但是做的還遠遠不夠,在集體文化權上,中國的文化政策保障的是少數族群的文化權,包含範圍太小,但目前還有很多少數群體的權利沒有在制度裡被保障,比如廣州的客家族群和非洲裔,同時個人文化權上,對文化權照顧的內容也不足,僅重視文化權中的文化消費,對言論自由等其他文化權利則避而不談。中國的人權問題一直被西方國家所詬病,結合西方文化權的相關理論,我希望中國政府能夠正視客家族群的特殊性,對客家文化和語言的傳承有所保障,而對非洲裔的文化能夠採取寬容的態度去接納,消除社會對他們的污名,從而將文化權涵蓋對象的範圍擴及,使其更廣,同時對於權利的面向也要擴及,使其更完整。
    ;Cultural rights is mentioned as a legal concept in "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights" approved by the UN General Assembly in December 1966. Although it is a part of human rights, it is the most immature in range, legal content and enforceability compared to other human rights such as Civil rights, political rights and economic rights. Thus cultural rights are often considered as the "underdeveloped sector" and become "neglected human rights." Since the 1990s, the Western nation-state has undergone a series of "rights revolution", on demand of the various rights, thinking the issues of belonging and exclusion. In these different rights, the cultural rights, which is not new but neglected has becoming more and more important with increasing situation of the transnational migration and culture across borders and the rise of multiculturalism. (Lijung Wang,2012: 40) In the Documents of human rights, cultural rights is in parallel with civil rights, political rights, economic rights and social rights and these rights are inseparate. Thus every States must take responsibility to protect the cultural rights. Meanwhile because cultural rights include individual cultural rughts and collective cultural rights, Therefore, cultural rights also became claims of ethnic minorities for their collective rights. Will Kymlicka (1995: 27-31) classified rights of ethnic rights into self-government rights, special representation rights, and polyethnic rights, the first two rights refer to regional self-governance and political participation, and the third refers to the cultural rights. (Cheng-Feng Shih, 2008: 6)
    With cultural rights becoming a global consensus, China joining the United Nations in 1971 and actively involving global society after the reform in 1978 as well as China′s economic development, citizens ask more and more spiritual culture after living standards improving. So the official have recognized many international treaties in China and put emphasis on cultural rights of citizens. As a socialist country, China has some basics protection for individual cultural rights, but unlike democratic regime in Western countries, China’s authoritarian political system differs frome the democratic countries on the protection and implementation of cultural rights. China attaches great importance to the cultural consumption and cultural industries, emphasizes economic discourse dominating cultural policy, reflecting ideology, and ignores freedom of speech and other rights. Meanwhile, the protection of collective rights has limitations, many unrecognized minorities’collective rights have been ignored.
    Chinese government claims that China is a multi-ethnic country, and it has legislative measures for the recognized national minorities. But government′s ethnic policy was only for recognized national minorities, for other minorities, the protection of their rights have not been officially recognized. For instance, Han ethnic is not a homogenous group.In Guangdong Province, there is Cantonese, Hakka and Chaozhou,three ethnics, and they differ frome each other in culture and language, but they are only the Han ethnic for government. Therefore, cultural rights of Hakka have not been concerned. In addition, with the deepening of globalization, more and more foreigners come to and become permanent residence. Since the 1980s, more and more Africans come to China, most of them live in the Guangdong province, and do business. Some people gradually can speak fluent Cantonese. At present, African residential districts have formed in Xiaobei Road, Ghuanghuasan Road and other places. (Liu Li Duo, 2007) Due to the Chinese deeply rooted racial ideology, they have been treated far less than the Europeans and Americans in China. Chinese government also think there is no need to consider their cultural rights.
    The range of the protection of ethnic minoritiesin the United Nations Declaration has undergone the process from race to minority groups, such as ethnic, religious and language to non-citizen immigrants. According to the United Nations declaration, Hakka ethnic and African immigrants also belong to ethnic minorities, but at the current, government did not make any law or take any measures to protect the rights and resolve the problems that Hakka ethnic and African immigrants faces.
    Because of characteristics of the Hakka ethnic and African immigrants and the special national conditions in China, the first two rights: self-government rights and special representation rights that Kymlicka proposed are difficult to achieve, so this parper mainly studies on the polyethnic rights. This paper takes Canton for research site, firstly, I review related theories and literature of western cultural rights and ethnic rights, then review the characteristics of Chinese cultural rights, and then take observation, interviews and questionnaires to investgate the actual situation of cultural rights of Hakka ethnic and African immigrants in Canton.
    For the Hakka ethnic, the Government has some basic cultural activities to let them participate, so to a certain extent, the individual cultural rights has been protected, but the quality of these activities are poor, and there is no special attention that is paied on the implication of Hakka culture, thus Hakka collective cultural rights is not be considered, Hakka culture is in the double dilemma: Cantonese culture and northern centeral culture. For the African immigrants, the government allowe Muslim to worship at the mosque, and wear headscarves. Their culture rights are not blocked, but they are stigmatized by the whole society and the government also lets the media humiliate them.
    Thus, we found from the study that the Chinese government has protected cultural rights in some extent, but what it has done is not enough. In collective cultural rights, China′s cultural policy protects the recognized national minorities, which the range of protected rights is too small. A lot of ethnisc minorities’rights are not protectrd at present, such as Hakka ethnic and African immigrants in canton. Meanwhile, on individual cultural rights, the content of protected rights is also insufficient, it only emphasizes the cultural consumption, and ignores other cultural rights such as freedom of speech. The issues on human rights in China has been criticized by Western countries all the time, so refer to theories of Western cultural rights, I hope the Chinese government can face up to the characteristics of the Hakka ethnicity, and take some measures to protecr the Hakka culture and language, while take tolerant attitude to accept the African culture and eliminate social stigma against them. By doing this, make the range of protected cultural rights wider and the content of it more complete.
    Keywords: Hakka ethnicity African immigrants cultural riights China
    Appears in Collections:[客家社會文化研究所] 博碩士論文

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