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    题名: 詔安客福老化現象之研究:以桃園市八德區為例
    作者: 朱陳永鵬;Chen,Yung-Peng Chu
    贡献者: 客家研究碩士在職專班
    关键词: 詔安客;福老客;福老化現象;族群同化;族群認同;Zhaoan Hakka;Fulaolized Hakka;Fulaolization;Ethnic Assimilation;Ethnic Identity
    日期: 2016-07-19
    上传时间: 2016-10-13 13:45:04 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 摘要
    桃園市八德區位於桃園市境之東北,八德區詔安客家先民於清朝乾隆年間渡臺禁令廢弛後,從福建省漳州府詔安縣遷居來臺,當時此地居住客家、福老移民,由於從清朝、日治時期到民國初年,不當的省籍二分法,再加上詔安客家語和粵東客家語語音系統上的差別,造成詔安客在族群與語言的認同上偏向福老人。經過二百多年後的現在,這群詔安客後裔因受到福老文化的影響,逐漸福老化,各個年齡層幾乎都使用福老語,尤其是年輕一輩的最為嚴重,除了福老語的影響之外,政府錯誤的國語政策,更加深了詔安客語的流失。另外,詔安客從大陸原鄉來到桃園市八德區,伴隨他們而來的是濃濃的詔安客家風情,在八德創造出勤儉、純僕和刻苦耐勞的客家聚落,也在八德的歷史發展歷程中,留下許多詔安客家的傳統文化。然而隨著都市化與工業化的推展,逐漸的流失或被遺忘。
    本論文研究的區域為桃園市八德區,研究對象是以當地的詔安客家居民為主,以現況來討論詔安客的語言使用狀況與族群認同情形,採用半結構式的深度訪談法進行研究分析。研究結果發現,有以下四種情況正在發生中:第一是詔安客家與福老族群之間的界線越來越模糊;第二為詔安客語的使用能力與年齡成正比,亦即年齡愈長者,詔安客語使用能力愈好;第三為詔安客家族群的認同內涵,在老年人與青壯年人這二個世代是有差別的,老年人會以祖籍作為其認同的基礎,而青壯年人會以語言作為其認同的基礎;第四語言可以說是一個族群重要的標幟,當語言慢慢流失了,可以預言未來詔安客家族群也會跟著消失。最後,以Gordan(1964)的同化理論而言,桃園市八德區的詔安客正處於婚姻同化與認同同化之間。


    關鍵詞:詔安客、福老客、福老化現象、族群同化、族群認同
    ;Abstract
    Bade District, Taoyuan City is situated in the northeast of Taoyuan City. Zhaoan Hakka ancestors in Bade District moved to Taiwan from Zhaoan County, Zhangzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province after the ban against moving to Taiwan was lifted during the reign of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty. At that time, the Hakka and Fulao immigrants lived here. Due to the improper provincial dichotomy from Qing Dynasty to Japanese Occupation and initial of Republic of China and the difference of voice system between Zhaoan Hakka and Eastern Guangdong Hakka, Zhaoan Hakka was tended to Fulao People in ethnic and linguistic identity. After over two hundred years, now the descendants of Zhaoan Hakka are affected by Fulao culture and gradually become “Fulaolized”, and people of all ages use Fulao language. In particular, the young generation is severely affected by Fulao language the most. In addition to the effect of Fulao language, the wrong Mandarin policy proposed by government also deteriorated the loss of Zhaoan Hakka. Besides, Zhaoan Hakka moved from their hometown of mainland China to Bade District, Taoyuan City; along with them, it was filled with local customs and practices of Zhaoan Hakka, and then they developed Hakka settlement with frugal, simple and hard-working characteristics in Bade and also remained lots of Hakka’s traditional culture during the developing process of Bade. However, with the development of urbanization and industrialization, the Hakka’s traditional cultural had gradually loss and been forgotten.
    Bade District, Taoyuan City was involved in the research, and local Zhaoan Hakka were the research participants. Researcher applied the current status to discuss the Zhaoan Hakka language use situation and the ethnic identity, and adopted semi-structured in-depth interview method for research analysis. Based on research findings, there were four situations in progress: First, the boundary between Zhaoan Hakka and Fulao ethnic group was increasingly blurred; second, the competence for Zhaoan Hakka language use was positively correlated to age, namely, people with higher age had better competence for Zhaoan Hakka language use; third, Zhaoan Hakka ethnic groups had different identity connotations between two generations, old people and young people, indicating the old people’s identity was based on ancestral hometown, while young people’s identity was based on language; fourth, language is regarded as the important mark of an ethnic group. If language losses gradually, it means that the Zhaoan Hakka ethnic group will also disappear in the future. Finally, in terms of assimilation theory of Gordan (1964), Zhaoan Hakka in Bade District, Taoyuan City encountered the situation between assimilation of marriage and assimilation of identity.



    Keywords: Zhaoan Hakka, Fulaolized Hakka, Fulaolization, Ethnic Assimilation, Ethnic Identity
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