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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71858


    Title: 臺灣銀行產業對中小企業放款之研究
    Authors: 呂木成;Lu,Mu-Chen
    Contributors: 高階主管企管碩士班
    Keywords: 本國銀行;中小企業放款;玉山銀行;domestic banks;SME loaning;E.Sun Bank
    Date: 2016-07-11
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 13:58:34 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 臺灣銀行產業在1990年開放新銀行設立前,整個金融環境屬於賣方市場,競爭小,利潤高,當時銀行貸款對象以公營企業或大型民營企業為主,中小企業很難從銀行管道取得資金,但是在金融自由化後,新銀行陸續成立,銀行間競爭激烈,本國銀行最多曾超逾50家,因此金融環境漸漸轉為買方市場,中小企業尋求資金融通不再困難重重。

    中小企業一直以來對於臺灣的經濟發展貢獻卓著,是創造臺灣經濟奇蹟的重要功臣,也是臺灣的主要產業結構,中小企業家數及就業人口是所有企業中最高的,對於國家經濟發展及吸納就業占有重要地位,因此輔導中小企業取得融資,健全財務體質,協助經營發展也成了政府的重要施政目標。中小企業所需營運資金主要來源為銀行融資,雖然銀行家數眾多,但是對於授信風險相對較高的中小企業,尤其是規模偏小或獨資經營等微型企業,銀行放款策略則顯得保守,造成一些中小企業轉向租賃公司、民間融資或以個人信貸支應,無形中增加成本,對其營運發展相對不利。

    本研究首先是透過SCP(結構-行為-績效)架構,分析本國銀行對中小企業放款的市場結構,其次,從市場結構中研究本國銀行的廠商行為,最後,再分析其經營績效。從蒐集的資料進行分析,本國銀行對中小企業放款的市場結構介於低度寡占市場與獨占性競爭市場之間,公股及泛公股銀行的市占率超過60%,仍是主要資金提供者,民營銀行自2009年後,對中小企業放款大幅提升。本國銀行對中小企業放款仍以安全性、收益性為主要考量,在經營績效上,中小企業放款之逾期放款比率高於總放款逾期放款比率,中小企業放款對盈餘直接貢獻占比接近10%。

    個案研究以玉山銀行為例,分析其對中小企業放款策略及經營績效表現優異的緣由。該行對中小企業放款目標客群鎖定在規模偏大的客群,授信訂價則加入風險成本因素,在中小企業放款經營,該行連續十年獲得信保夥伴獎-總行獎的殊榮。
    研究結果顯示,銀行對中小企業放款,基於風險考量,偏愛體質較佳的規模偏大客群,造成規模偏小或占55.04%採獨資經營等微型企業不易從銀行取得融資。另外,銀行在辦理授信,進行信用評等時,因多數中小企業有節稅考量,報表失真,造成信用評等較實際為差,直接影響銀行的授信決策及利率訂價。而政府為輔導中小企業取得銀行融資而成立的中小企業信用保證基金,政策前後不一或變化過大,影響銀行送保意願,間接造成中小企業融資困難。銀行在辦理中小企業放款時,除了參考企業的財務、非財務資料外,該企業與銀行的往來關係及貢獻也是重要的考量因素,這是中小企業常常忽略的,故無法取得較好的授信條件。;Prior to the de-regulation of establishing new banks in 1990, entire financial environment of the Taiwanese banking industry is dominated by the selling side with low competition and high profit, and the lending target was primarily the public institutions or large-scale private enterprises; the small and medium enterprises, in practice, were very difficult to acquire funds through banking channel. Nevertheless, not until the financial liberalization had new banks been continuously established, the intense competition among banks (or we may say, more than 50 banks in its prime period) obliged the financing environment to be shifted into buyer market; since then, the circumstance has been not so difficult for the small and medium enterprises to receive the funding from banks.

    The small and medium enterprises have always rendered outstanding contributions to the economic development of Taiwan, which is the meritorious role acting as the industrial mainframe to create our economic miracles and employing the highest populace in all enterprises here in Taiwan. For it has become so important, how to counsel small and medium enterprises to obtain credited loan, create sound financing physique, and help them in operating development is turning into an important administration target for our government. The main resource for small and medium enterprises to secure operating funds is coming from banking loan; not but that there are many banks now, the strategy of banking loan is still maintained in a conservative way, particularly, onto the small-micro-and medium-sized enterprise with high credit risk. Thus, several enterprises are turning to leasing companies, private financing, or personal credit, so as to obtain the fund which is invisibly increasing the costs and cause detrimental to their operating developments.

    The study is first to analyze the loan market structure of domestic banks to small and medium enterprises through the analysis of Structure, Conduct, and Performance (SCP). We find that the market structure of small and medium enterprises loan is between oligopoly and monopolistic competition. The governmental banks (or State-Own Banks) occupy more than 60% of the market share. After 2009, the loan for small and medium enterprises was substantially increased while the loaning process (local banks to small and medium enterprises) was still based upon the safety and profitability. In the operational performance, SME’ overdue loans rate is higher than that of the total loan, SME loan contribute near 10% of the profit.

    In a Case Study on E. Sun Bank we analyze E-Sun bank’ SME lending strategy and reason of its significant performance and find that its lending target is larger scale customer segment and its lending pricing has included risk cost. The bank has won the Credit-guaranty Partner Award (headquarter prize) for 10 consecutive year in terms of SME.

    The research findings show that the bank making loans to SMEs are based on the consideration of risk, and prefers large-scale SME with better physique, the result of which makes the small enterprises, or micro-enterprises (the individual proprietorship/accounted for 55.04 percent of small enterprises) difficult to obtain financing from banks. In addition, in the process of conducting loan or ranking credit, the banks’ strategies and interest pricing may be directly affected by the distortion arising from statements submitted by SME whose original intention is due to tax saving. As to the “Small and Medium Business Credit Guarantee Fund of Taiwan” established by our government to counsel SMEs obtaining banking loan, for the inconsistency and huge variation occurs before and after the policy, it is not only affecting banks’ participating willingness, but also leading to difficulties for SME to secure the loan. In addition to the financial and non-financial information, when granting a loan banks consider the interaction with bank and contribution to bank. Such important factors are often neglected by SME who fail to obtain a better credit terms they deserve.
    Appears in Collections:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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