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|Title: ||1978至2014年期間台灣產業結構變動對勞動素質與勞動需求的影響分析;An Analysis on the impact of Taiwan’s Industrial transition in labor quality and labor demand for the period of 1978-2014|
|Keywords: ||勞動投入;勞動素質;教育;勞動需求彈性;labor input;labor quality;education;labor demand elasticity|
|Issue Date: ||2016-10-13 14:01:37 (UTC+8)|
另外，對於台灣年均GDP增長率的貢獻來源而言，發現全要素投入(TFP)對經濟成長貢獻下降情況，技術創新真的不可忽視。同時，我們還發現勞動、資本以及全要素投入等各生產投入都有邊際報酬遞減現象，然而以各要素成分對GDP增長率貢獻來看，專科以上的高人力資本相對勞動投入的比重卻呈現遞增，台灣是新興工業化國家(newly industrialized country)，因為生產投入的邊際報酬遞減，追趕效應(the catch-up effect)使得我們經濟成長遲緩，額外的生產投入對生產力增長效果遞減，然經濟成長主要的貢獻來源有賴勞動投入的勞動素質的提升，尤其是專科以上的高人力資本的運用，唯有善用這些專業技術的人力資源，才能創造持續穩定經濟成長的另一高峰。
;To understand the changes of labor quality in the process of industrial structure transition, this article compiles labor input indices that capture both employment changes and quality improvement of labor in Taiwan, from 1978 to 2014. Up to 75.87% of average annual labor input growth is from quality improvement. Further decomposition reveals that the most important source of growth is educational attainment, followed by industry structure. Making good use of agricultural release, population is transferred into the nonagricultural sector, and the advantage of cumulative work experience of the high-aged labor resource is quite favorable for improving the effect of labor quality.
For the source of contributions to Taiwan’s annual GDP growth rate, we found that the contribution of total factor inputs (TFP) to economic growth is declining, so that technological innovation cannot be ignored. We also found that labor, capital and TFP all show diminishing returns. However, with the contribution of each input component to GDP growth rate, the proportion of highly skilled human capital to labor input is relatively large and increasing. Taiwan is a newly industrialized country, but because of diminishing returns to factor inputs, catch-up has been slower than hoped. Adding to factor inputs has a relatively small effect on productivity. The main source of continuous economic growth is from labor quality, especially from highly skilled human capital. Making good use of these human resources creates a stable source of sustained economic growth.
Labor quality is a major contributor to Taiwan’s economic growth. Therefore, it is especially important to raise the educational level. Looking to the process of globalization, we see that this brought about changes in industrial structure that impacted on the local demand for labor. Education aimed at specific industries should show whether there are particular qualities these industries require. We applied the labor demand model and used DGBAS data and data from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics Department for our in-depth analysis. Our empirical findings are that the impacts of exogenous shocks are inconsistent for the various industries and the elasticity of labor demand has increased for most of them. The main impact of fluctuations in the labor market is through the substitution effect, but this also increases the workers’ employment risks and uncertainties. To reduce the risk to employment in labor demand, the quality of labor should be enhanced, especially through education and training, which can really improve resilience to external shocks. Of course, we must have coordinated response measures related to labor market institutions and the employment security system to reduce negative impacts on the labor market, while also playing an active and positive role in stabilizing employment
|Appears in Collections:||[產業經濟研究所] 博碩士論文|
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