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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71890


    Title: 研發資源、學術能量與創新品質;R&D resources, academic capacity, and innovation quality
    Authors: 林品華;Lin,Pin-Hua
    Contributors: 產業經濟研究所
    Keywords: 研發資源;學術品質;學術相對影響力;專利品質;專利引用;R&D resources;academic quality;relative citation impact;patent quality;patent citation
    Date: 2016-07-20
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 14:01:54 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 在國家創新系統中,科學與技術是創新能量的兩個最主要來源,而政府、產業和大學三者間相互連結與協調,更是推動知識的生產、轉化、應用、產業化及升級的主要關鍵。本論文主要從資源投入、學術能量與創新品質之關係出發,以三篇研究來討論創新系統相關文獻上相對較忽略的重點,以豐富對整個連結機制的瞭解。
    第一篇研究是探討科學產出與國家生產力的關係。與過去文獻差異處在於,本研究考量相關變數的時間序列特性,以及彼此間存在的時間落後關係,以1982-2007年25國的跨國資料為基礎,更嚴謹地討論學術產出與經濟成長的關係。結果顯示,原始資料皆為非穩態數列,具有高度時間相依,而進一步將國家進行分群討論,發現台灣、韓國、新加坡及日本等亞洲國家,在GDP與論文量兩者呈現互為因果的關係,背後可能隱含產業發展通常領導其科技政策,並且科學技術發展也會提升產業製程及生產力。至於較富有的西方國家,其相對優勢領域集中在距離產業技術應用端較遠之領域,如醫學、生命科學、自然科學等,多數則未呈現出科學產出影響經濟產出的現象。
    第二篇研究在探討學術資源投入與學術品質的關係。本研究以學術論文相對影響力(即論文相對被引用率)作為衡量學術品質的指標,有別於過去文獻常用之論文量的量化指標。在模型設計上,考量高等教育研發經費、高等教育研發存量,以及相關落後期變數,並進階考量科學與工程領域及人文社科領域兩者的差異。利用1981-2011年41國的跨國實證結果顯示,無論在科學與工程領域、人文社科領域或全領域,學術研發資源對學術品質有顯著為正的影響,且資源投入具有累積效果,以及時間的遞延效果。亞洲國家與非亞洲國家在學術品質表現上存有差異,符合過去文獻認為不同國家群集間,存在科學結構不一致之現象的論點。
    第三篇研究在探討專利品質與國家學術品質之關聯。本研究以平均專利被引用數作為專利品質的衡量變數,從國家學術品質、國家的產學連結、科學與技術連結(科學知識擴散)、技術與技術連結(技術知識擴散)等構面進行討論。利用1995-2012年33國的跨國實證結果顯示,國家學術品質是影響國家專利品質的重要變數,對專利品質有顯著的正面助益。當國家的產學連結、技術連結程度(專利引用程度)越高,也使專利品質愈佳。但在引用非專利文獻相關變數的科學連結部分,實證結果呈現負向,但不顯著的影響,由於引用大量科學文獻的專利,可能包含更複雜與原創性的知識,使得知識應用不易擴散,而領域差異及專利權人屬性等因素可能也會產生引用行為的差異。
    ;In a national innovation system, science and technology are the two most important sources of innovation capacity. The interconnections and coordination between government, industry, and universities are the main factors in promoting the production, transfer, application, industrialization, and improvement of knowledge. This thesis begins with the relationships between resources investment, academic capacity, and innovation quality, conducting three studies to discuss some key points relatively neglected in the literature related to innovation systems, in order to enrich the understanding of the entire linkage mechanism.
    The first study explores the relationship between research output and economic productivity. Unlike previous studies, this paper takes into consideration the time-series features of variables and the time-lagged relationships between one another in order to more meticulously discuss the relationship between research output and economic productivity. The empirical results for 25 countries between 1982 and 2007, for Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Japan, and other Asian countries, when the GDP and the number of paper publications both exhibit mutual causality, indicate that industrial developments are generally leading science and technology policies, and that scientific and technological developments will also enhance industrial processes and productivity. Wealthier Western countries have relative advantages in concentrating on the fields of medicine, life sciences, natural sciences, and other fields far away from industrial applications and the majority of them do not exhibit a situation where research output impacts economic output.
    The second study explores the relationship between academic research resources and academic quality. This thesis adopts a paper’s relative citation impact as an indicator of its academic quality, which is unlike the quantitative indicator of the number of paper publications commonly used in previous studies. This paper adopts the cross-country empirical results of ordered probit and panel data models to show that, regardless of whether the field is “science” or “social science” or an entire field, the academic research and development (R&D) resources available have a significantly positive impact on academic quality and that resources investments have cumulative effects and delayed effects. There are differences in the performance of academic quality in Asian and non-Asian countries. These findings are in line with those of past studies, which consider that there are inconsistent scientific structures among the different country groups.
    The third study explores the correlation between patent quality and national academic quality. This thesis adopts the average number of forward citations of a patent as a measurable indicator of patent quality and conducts discussions from the perspectives of national academic quality, industry–academia linkages in countries, science and technology linkages (scientific knowledge flows), technology and technology linkages (technological knowledge flows), etc. As indicated by cross-country empirical results for 33 countries from 1995 to 2012, the national academic quality is an important variable impacting national patent quality, having significant positive benefits on patent quality. When the levels of industry–academia linkages and technology linkages (i.e., the number of backward citations) of a country are higher, it will also prompt better patent quality. However, for the science linkage aspect of indicators related to referencing non-patent literature, there are negative albeit insignificant impacts. Since a patent referencing a large number of scientific papers likely contains knowledge with more complexity and originality, it may not be easy to generalize the applications of this knowledge. In addition, factors like differences between fields and the attributes of the patentee may also cause differences in referencing behavior.
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟研究所] 博碩士論文

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