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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/76606


    Title: 展示一段被忽視的歷史——契丹帝國繪畫藝術研究
    Authors: 莢立剛;Jia, Li-Gang
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 契丹帝國;還原史實;繪畫藝術;漢化性;民族性;The Khitan Empire;restored the historical;painting art;nationality;Sinicization
    Date: 2018-07-23
    Issue Date: 2018-08-31 11:29:40 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 摘要
    本文在研究態度上,跳脫出傳統美術史研究潜在立足的「中華中心主義」立場,將以「中華中心主義」爲指導的美術史知識「懸置」起來不用。換一種更爲客觀,更爲現代的眼光和態度,重新研究一段被現今主流學界和教育界所忽視、虛化、歪曲的契丹帝國歷史和契丹繪畫藝術。
    繪畫藝術,無論其處於何種歷史時空下,貫穿其産生、發展、嬗變之整個過程的,是社會現實和社會意識形態的影響。具體言之,繪畫藝術從畫面表像層面(繪畫技法層面和視覺效果層面),到作品內涵層面(主題立意層面和藝術精神層面),都或直接或間接的,受到來自民族性格、生存環境、生活方式、政治氣候、文化語境、文明類型等因素的深刻影響。
    因此研究特定歷史時空下的繪畫藝術,首當其衝要做的,是盡可能客觀而全貌的還原那段歷史時空本身。就本次研究而言,首先是要客觀而全貌的還原契丹民族和契丹帝國那段被現今中國學界和教育界基於主觀考量而有意忽視的歷史。
    契丹是建政早於宋一百多年的龐大帝國,它與興起於黃河流域的,吞噬了多個割據政權而將中原漢地統一,代表或象徵著當時歷史上「中華」的宋,二者在澶淵之盟後,維繫了長達一百多年的和平友好、互利共贏的國際關係。
    然而就 「契丹與宋之辯」 這一議題,中國學界和教育界因爲特殊的政治考量和「中華中心主義」觀念的作祟,普遍採取的態度和觀點,是儘量不去觸及契丹享國三百餘年(西元907年建政,西元1134年遷都虎思翰耳朵,西元1218年爲蒙古所滅)的國家本質,將契丹帝國虛化、弱化爲「邊疆少數民族政權」,將契丹帝國與宋之間,複雜而平等的國際關係,矮化爲少數民族政權與中央王朝之間的民族矛盾與民族融合。這類態度和觀點,是不切合史實的。
    這樣的態度和觀點,無助於研究契丹帝國的真實歷史,更無法以持此態度和觀點的學者的研究成果,作爲契丹繪畫藝術研究的嚮導和依據。因此,在研究過程中,「跳脫」的眼光和「走出藩籬」的學術態度顯得格外重要。
    被歷史淹沒的,亦或者說是被學界、教育界悉心掩蓋、虛化的契丹帝國歷史,其國家性質、政治制度、社會生活、文化演變、國際關係等問題,遠比教材所講授的,民衆所瞭解的,要複雜、多重、豐富的多。
    契丹帝國,因其在建國之初,就與代表或象徵著歷史上「中華」的中原王朝有著極爲複雜且密切的關聯,因而在其文明屬性和文化類型上,呈現出雙重性——彰顯契丹本體性質的「民族性」和體現出其與「中華」之複雜密切關聯的「漢化性」。
    這種文明屬性和文化類型上的雙重性,影響深遠,契丹帝國的國家性質和政治制度,以及歷代統治階層的執政方針和文化政策,無不受到這種雙重性的直接左右,而契丹帝國的繪畫藝術,更是因這種雙重性的影響,而呈現出本文以大量篇幅展開論述的雙重特性與多重面貌。
    以耶律倍爲代表的親近漢族文化的契丹貴族文人,創作出承襲唐繪畫脉絡的畫作,雖然這些畫作已無傳世真迹,但根據古籍記載,可得知:這些畫作從繪畫技法、形式語言到思想內涵、藝術精神,各個層面無不呈現出一派「中華正統」的漢化性面貌。契丹繪畫的漢化性,還體現在以宣化下八裏墓室壁畫爲代表的,一系列契丹墓室壁畫中。這些壁畫廣泛分布於河北、內蒙古、遼寧等地的契丹墓室,其漢化性,體現在對唐繪畫技法的承繼與發展,還體現在對中原漢族生產生活方式的描繪與敘事。
    契丹慶東陵的大型壁畫〈四季山水圖〉與屏風畫〈丹楓呦鹿圖〉、〈秋林群鹿圖〉、小幅絹本畫〈射騎圖〉,是契丹民族本土化繪畫作品的傑出代表,這幾件畫作,在達到古代東北亞的寫實繪畫藝術巔峰水準的同時,在題材選擇、審美取向、畫面構成、藝術精神等多重角度,彰顯出契丹帝國繪畫藝術的民族性特質,幷由此體現出契丹帝國的生存環境、民族特性、生活方式等諸多社會現實。
    雖然同屬於寫實的範疇,契丹帝國繪畫還是在諸多層面,與宋的繪畫有著本質的,抑或說根本性的區別。需要本文予以一一分析和闡述。;Abstract
    In this paper, the research of art history gets out of the traditional and potential position of "Han centralism", and abandons a series of views guided by “Han standard”, such as "Chinese ancient art history", "Chinese minority art history" and "Chinese frontier area art history", which are popular and widely used in current educational system. From a more objective and modern view, the history and the art of the Khitan Empire are restudied, which have been ignored, undervalued and distorted by the mainstream of art academia and educational filed nowadays.

    The art of painting has been greatly influenced by social reality and social ideology, throughout the whole process of its production, development and evolution, no matter in which time and space of the history. To be specific, from the appearance of the picture, including painting technique and visual effect,to the meaning of the work,including the theme setting and the artistic spirit,the art of painting has been influenced directly or indirectly by the character of the race,the living environment, the ways of life, the political environment,the cultural context, the type of civilization and so on.

    Therefore, to study the art of painting in specific historical time and space, the first thing to do is to treat the history as objectively and completely as possible. As far as this paper,the first thing to do is to objectively treat the history of the race of Khitan,which has been deliberately undervalued by current art academia and educational field.

    The race of Khitan was a huge empire more than 100 years earlier than the Song Dynasty established by the race of Han. The Khitan empire maintained a peaceful and friendly relationship for more than one hundred years with Song Dynasty which represent China at that time.

    However, as the art academia and the educational field regard Han as the center, they has undervalued the Khitan although it had a long history of more than three hundred years.

    Such attitudes and views are unfavourable to study the painting of Khitan. Therefore, during the research, the academic attitudes of jumping out and geting out of the fence are particularly important.

    The history of the Khitan Empire which has been ignored or undervalued is far more complicated and important than the schoolbook taught or we knew.

    The Khitan Empire was highly connected to the Dynasty established by the race of Han which represented China at that time,thus Khitan Empire' civilization and culture presented two characteristics,one showing its racial nature as Khitan and the other showing its close relationship with the race of Han and being assimilated into Han.

    Both characteristics influenced Khitan'painting,which also presented these two characteristics and various features.

    The painting of Khitan had been assimilated into the culture of Han. It was reflected in the paintings created by Khitan' s noblemen who were proficient in the culture of Han. It was also reflected in paintings in many Khitan's graveyards which spread in the provinces of Hebei,Nei Monggol and Liaoning. It was the inheriting and developing of the painting methods of the Dynasty of Tang,and on the other hand,it was the describing and narrating of the ways of Khitan' producing and living which had been assimilated into the culture of Han.

    The large mural painting "The landscape of the four seasons",the screen painting "Deer group in maples" and "Herd of deer in autumn forest",and Small painting"Man with a horse" are the outstanding representatives showing Khitan's racial nature. These paintings were at the peak of the realistic painting art of the Ancient Northeast Asia, meanwhile they represented Khitan Empire's own characteristics on the subject selecting,the aesthetical standard, the composition of the picture and the artistic spirit,and they reflected Khitan Empire's living environment, racial characteristics,life style and so on.

    Although the painting of Khitan and the Dynasty of Song both belonged to realistic painting,they were different in nature in various aspects.<br>Therefore,the painting of Khitan will be analyzed and narrated in details in this paper.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

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