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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/77918


    Title: 從生態環境因素探析清帝國的中衰;On the Decline of Qing Dynasty from the Perspective of Environmental Factors
    Authors: 林于翔;Lin, Yu-Hsiang
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 環境史;嘉道中落;帝國中衰;生態危機;小冰期;Environmental history;declining era of Jiaqing and Daoguang;decline empire;ecological crisis;Little Ice Age.
    Date: 2018-08-23
    Issue Date: 2018-08-31 15:03:00 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 嘉慶道光年間,環境異變開始陸續出現,森林面積大量縮減,草木日漸稀少,生態系統受嚴重打擊,氣候的異常也是一大主因,與「太陽黑子極小期」有著密切關聯,人破壞生態環境,面對大自然反撲,各式的災荒也紛至沓來,嘉慶與道光年間的「寒害」、「旱災」「蝗災」等相關統計結果指出,嘉道年間多較康雍乾攀升,其中旱災、蝗害頻傳,帝王多次親身祈雨,民眾遍立廟宇所在多有,而這也與人為因素脫離不了關係,山林的開墾,植被的破壞,森林的稀少對於旱災也有催化效果存在,加劇旱災頻率,生態環境的失衡,也讓蝗蟲天敵驟減也致使了蝗災的發生機率。
    澇災、河患頻傳,至道光朝尤其嚴重,若以統計結果來說,嘉道年間看似比例不如康雍乾年間明顯,但若從單朝平均次數來看,道光年間的澇災比例與平均次數,均較康乾期攀升,動輒出現「淹死數人,房屋毀」、「堤決,漂沒田廬」、「水深數尺」等情形發生,而河患也是清帝國長年來所面臨的大挑戰,若把黃河、永定河、淮河之河患綜合統計之後明顯發現,嘉道年間明顯高出康雍乾年間。
    雖然嘉道年間的生態危機涵蓋旱、蝗、澇、河,且不斷惡化,深刻影響清帝國的盛衰,但執政者並非無解決之策,人口的激增,在乾隆年間人口已呈爆炸性成長,至道光年間人口已破四億,造成了人地關係的惡化,其中甘藷與玉米的推廣更是一大主因,由於皆為耐旱、生長期短、適應力強之物總,成為貧困人家的重要糧食,但讓人口大增之外,種植方式,也造成環境的破壞,而氣候與人口的成長,呈現正相關,深深影響著生產潛力與災害病疫的發生。
    人口的增加也帶來隱憂,過度的增長,導致了人均土地的數量下降,人為求生存,輒往山地邊界墾荒,確有造成山林的濫採問題衍生,執政者為縮減人口壓力,處理方式竟允許對「山內老林」區開發,衍生許多流民問題,衍生動亂,政府荒正舉措不當,倉儲之弊,儲糧不足,官吏中飽私囊,人民怨聲載道,官員的匿災與捏災,加深民怨。
    政府處置失當,致使災害來臨之際,情況更加嚴峻,而疫病的產生在嘉慶晚期,道光初期屢見不鮮,而當政府無法給人民期待,川楚教亂、太平天國等
    社會動亂也隨之產生,嘉道年間成為清代盛衰的關鍵。
    ;During the dynasty of Jiaqing and Daoguang, environmental variation started to appear one after and other. The area of the forest reduced a lot, grass gradually appeared, ecosystem damaged hugely; abnormal weather also was a major cause, highly related to the “sunspot minimum”. Human destroy biophysical environment, in order to face the rebounce of nature, varieties of disaster come in a throng. Based on the related statistical results showed, during the period of Jiaqing and Daoguang, “chilling injury”, “drought”, and “locust plague” occurred much more frequently compared with the era of Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong. Especially drought and locus plague. Emperors prayed for the rain repeatedly, people built temples everywhere, but those disasters eventually highly related to the man-made factors. Reclamation of forests, damage of vegetation, and scarce forests caused a catalytic effect to the drought, also increased the frequency of droughts. Unbalance of the ecosystem caused the natural enemies of locusts drop sharply and increased the possibility of locust plague.
    Waterlogging and river disaster happened frequently especially during the period of Daoguang. Based on the statistic results, era of Jiaqing and Daoguang seems not that severe compared to the era of Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong. But if we evaluate from the dimension of single dynasty, the ratio and average number of waterlogging and river disaster during the period of Daoguang was higher than the period of Kangxi and Qianlong. Even easily appeared the situation about “people drowning and house destruction”, “river burst and drifting farm land”, and “a few deep feet water” happened. River disaster was a long-term challenge. If we take comprehensive statistic of river disaster of Yellow River, Yungting River, and Huaihe River to see, period of Jiaqing and Daoguang were truly higher than the period of Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong.
    Although the ecological crisis during the era of Jiaqing and Daoguang which included drought, locust plague, waterlogging, and river disaster was getting worse and worse, deeply influenced the prosperity and decline of Qing Dynasty. Dominators still had solutions at the point, with the rapid growth of population, the era of Qianlong has grown explosively. The population already broke through to four billion which caused the deterioration of human-environment relationship. However, promotion of sweet potato and corns was also a major cause. Both of the sweet potato and corns were good at drought tolerance with short growing period, also are highly adaptable species, they had already become the most important food for those who suffered. Besides the growing population, the way of planting also caused the damage of the environment. And the climate also caused a direct correlation of the population growth, deeply influenced the potential productive forces and the cause of natural disasters.
    The growth of population also brought potential worries, excessive growth caused declining quantity of land per capita. In order to survive, human went to reclaim the border also caused the problem of deforestation. The governor in order to reduce the population pressure, they unexpectedly let people to develop the area which was very far-off and caused a lot of refugees and turmoil. The improper behavior of the government caused severe resentment.
    The way how government handled everything caused the chaos even more pessimistic. The epidemic disease occurred at the late period of Jiaqing , it was also occurred pretty often while the beginning period of Daoguang. When governments no longer be able to give expectance to their people, just like the White Lotus Rebellion and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and etc., social unrest started to occur, era of Jiaqing and Daoguang became the key of the prosperity and decline of Qing dynasty.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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