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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/77919


    Title: 中共土地改革政策之研究(1950-1953);The study of Land reform policy in Chinese Republic(1950-1953)
    Authors: 黃佳瑩;Huang, Chia-Ying
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 毛澤東;土地改革法;土改工作隊;農民協會;人民法庭;劃分階級成分
    Date: 2018-08-24
    Issue Date: 2018-08-31 15:03:03 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 中共土地改革政策之研究(1950-1953)
    摘要
    中華人民共和國成立後的土地改革著重於發展農村社會生產力,恢復和發展國民經濟,毛澤東在評估新區進行土地改革具備的條件已經成熟後,為了控制穩定地方秩序進行反惡霸和減租運動,準備足夠土地改革工作的幹部後各地便依《中華人民共和國土地改革法》的規定推動土地改革,中央組織土地改革委員會負責指導土地改革,地方由農民協會,負責發動群眾執行土地改革。土地改革完成後,再由人民政府發給土地所有證,那些土地改革以前的土地契約,一律作廢。土改的實際推動需要依靠群眾組織,因此中共需先分派土改工作隊到各地,召開群眾大會宣傳政策,以發動貧雇農為目標,訪苦問貧,協助組織農民協會,再由貧雇農占取主要領導地位,不過在土改過程中最常出現「和平分田」與「夾生飯」的問題,前者是因為群眾階級覺悟沒有足夠提高,無法展開激烈的階級鬥爭,出現假分田的情況,中共認為未能成功打擊地主階級是不夠成熟的鬥爭。後者是因為大部分地區的群眾運動中很多是新幹部沒有經驗,出現包辦代替的作法,因此中共對土改宣傳十分慎重,認為群眾要成功發動首要方式是教育群眾土地政策與階級觀念,透過農代會、群眾大會等,與群眾解釋與討論政策,再由幹部引導,提高其階級覺悟。但由於土改執行速度過快,容易發生偏差或不夠深入群眾的問題,因此中共指示這些地方必須在分田後再進行複查,而且必須注意解決遺漏和分配不公的問題,以滿足貧雇群眾要求,而且整個鬥爭政治層面應重於經濟層面,並且利用公審大會與人民法庭相結合的辦法,再次展開鬥爭,中共最終達到將勢力深入農村的成果。
    ;The study of Land reform policy in Chinese Republic(1950-1953)
    Abstract
    After the founding of Chinese Republic focus on developing rural social productivity of the national economy. Assessing the conditions for land reform in the new district has matured, controlling stable order and carrying out anti-hegemony and rent reduction campaigns, as well as cadres who are preparing enough land reform work. All localities will promote land reform in accordance with the provisions of the Land Reform Law of the People′s Republic of China. The organization of the Agrarian Reform Commission is responsible for guiding the land reform, and the local farmers’ association is responsible for mobilizing the masses to implement land reform. After the completion of the land reform, the people′s government will issue all the land certificates, and the land contracts before the land reform will be nullified. The actual promotion of land reform needs to rely on mass organizations. Therefore, the CCP needs to first assign the land reform work team to various places, convene the mass conference publicity policy, aim at launching poor farmers, visit poverty, help organize farmers′ associations, and take the lead of poor farmers. Status, but in the process of land reform, the problem of "peaceful splitting" and "sanding rice" is the most common. The former is because the mass class consciousness has not improved, it is impossible to carry out a fierce class struggle, the situation of false divisions has occurred, and the landlord class has not been successfully attacked. The latter is because many of the mass movements in most areas have no experience of new cadres and there is a substitute for the practice. Therefore, the CCP emphasizes correcting the peaceful land reform and is very cautious about the land reform. The primary way for the masses to succeed is to educate the people’s land policy. Through the Agricultural Congress, the mass meeting, etc., explain and discuss policies with the masses, and then guide them by cadres to improve their class consciousness. Because the implementation of land reform is too fast, it is prone to deviations or insufficiently deep into the masses. Therefore, the CCP has indicated that these places must be reviewed after the field is divided. It is necessary to pay attention to solving the problem of omission and unfair distribution to meet the requirements of the poor and the masses. Using the combination of the Public Review Conference and the People’s Court, we will once again
    wage a struggle and finally reach the outcome of the CCP’s efforts to penetrate the ountryside.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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