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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/78595


    Title: 通訊科技、海外委外及境外生產,與廠商績效之研究;Information and Communication Technologies, Foreign Outsourcing and Offshoring, and Firm Performance
    Authors: 鄒孟文
    Contributors: 國立中央大學產業經濟研究所
    Keywords: 通訊科技 海外委外 境外生產 廠商績效;ICT;fragmentation;foreign outsourcing;offshoring;firm performance
    Date: 2018-12-19
    Issue Date: 2018-12-20 12:06:28 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 科技部
    Abstract: 在全球化的潮流下,近年來台灣企業在全球價值鏈(global value chain)中扮演的角色 受到各界的矚目。自1990 年代開始,受到網際網路的興起,通訊科技(information and communication technology, ICT)的發展日新月異,使得廠商的生產或服務活動更容易進 行全球整合。根據交易成本理論,網路的採用除了可降低運輸成本、企業內部的管理作 業成本外,也可降低與外部企業的溝通與協調成本。因此,網路科技的採用對廠商「自 製」vs.「外購」的決策是否有影響?對國內委外和海外委外的影響是否不同?亦或是 隨著不同產業的技術體制、廠商規模、組織架構,以及國際化程度而有效益上的差異? 這些皆是有趣的議題,除了可藉以瞭解新科技對企業經營模式的影響之外,也有助於政 府訂定產業與科技政策。以往多數廠商層級的研究,普遍證實通訊科技和全球採購之間 有正向的關係(Tomiura, 2005; Abramovsky and Griffith, 2006; Hyun, 2010);但新近美國和 義大利的實證發現則有不同的發現。Fort (2016)發現通訊科技對增進「國內外包」 (domestic outsourcing)的影響大於「國外外包」(foreign outsourcing)。Benfratello et al. (2015) 以義大利製造業為研究對象,在控制住潛在的內生性後,甚至發現通訊科技的投資對境 外生產有顯著負向影響。此一效果主要係來自低技術廠商,隱含網路科技可能和國內例 行性、技術層次低的工作有某種替代性。 台灣企業的經營模式普遍可區分製造、代客加工(委託代工或設計,OEM/ODM)、 和自行研發並委外(自有品牌)等三種模式。如何能擺脫代工角色,成功轉型一直是廣受 討論的議題。本研究將以行政院主計總處的民國95年和100年製造業普查資料,以及電 子業的普查panel資料,利用廠商將網路使用於內部管理、有公司專屬網頁、上網採購、 上網銷售等營運數位化指標作為衡量通訊科技的代理變數,探討網路技術的使用對廠商 營運模式:包括製造、委外、國內委外vs.海外委外、境外生產的影響。ICT對哪一類營 運模式的助益較大,或者在何種技術層次的產業,哪些廠商特性(例如員工組合、組織 設計)配合的條件下,經營模式才能漂亮轉身,將是本研究第一年計畫的主要研究目的。 第二年計畫將探討生產和服務活動的分割(production/service fragmentation)對廠商 2 績效的影響。此主題與第一年的議題相關,但分析上有其獨立性。海外委外或境外生產 可能透過專注於核心能力,將非核心的業務委外;能與國外供應商互動,帶來學習外部 性;進口高品質或更符合企業要求的要素投等途徑,來提升生產效率。有關探討海外委 外和廠商績效的實證研究中,多數發現海外委外能提升廠商生產力,但其影響隨著國 家、廠商型態與委外標的係原物料或服務而有所不同(McCann, 2011; Schwo¨rer, 2013)。 本部分的分析將採用包括台灣電子業民國95年和100年普查panel資料,以及串聯第二次 和第三次的產業創新活動調查(以台灣TOP5000企業為主)與民國95年和100年的製造業 和服務業普查資料。由於這兩次產業創新活動調查廠商的期間(民國93-95年,民國96-99 年)正值兩次普查之前,因此可觀察到更豐富的經營模式與創新資訊,以及包括員工人 數、員工雇用組合、生產力、研發活動、是否有產品或製程創新,是否與他公司共同進 行創新活動等廠商績效指標的變化。本項子計畫的重點將檢視生產和服務委外,國內委 外vs.海外委外、境外生產對廠商生產力和研發創新表現的影響。實證模型將會處理生產 /服務活動分割的自我選擇(self-selection)問題,採用propensity score matching方法進行分 析。 本計畫的兩個研究子題分別將採用至少兩套資料進行分析,並且皆會處理關鍵變數 的內生性問題。截至目前為止,本議題的文獻集中於已開發國家,針對開發中國家的研 究相當稀少。台灣的各類產業在全球價值鏈中扮演的角色,以及台灣企業在全球佈局中 如何借助新科技來轉換經營模式,創造更多附加價值,提升生產力和創新力,是本研究 探討的主要目的。本項計畫的研究發現將對企業決策具有實務上的啟示,所獲得的結論並有重要的產業與科技政策意涵。 ;Profound innovations in information and communication technologies (ICT) has been accompanied by increased formation of global value chains that are creating new opportunities for firms to become more globally integrated. The emergence of ICT has enabled firms to reduce transactions costs, including those in transportation, communication, and coordination. Theoretically, there is no compelling reason why ICT investment in manufacturing should necessarily increase the probability to offshore. On the one hand, the reduction in communication and coordination costs is likely to favor offshoring. On the other hand, increased complementarity of production stages within the firm or the augmented complexity of tasks induced by ICT investment might reduce the incentive to offshore as opposed to in-house production. Therefore, this remains to be an empirical issue. Prior firm-level evidence generally supports for a positive relationship between ICT use and global sourcing activity (Tomiura, 2005; Abramovsky and Griffith, 2006; Hyun, 2010). However, recent studies provide mixed results for the U.S. and Italy. Fort (2016) find the effect of communication technology on sourcing activities is disproportionately larger for domestic than for foreign sourcing in the U.S. Controlling the endogeneity of ICT use, Benfratello et al. (2015) use the data on Italian firms to show that ICT has a negative effect on offshoring. The effect is only significant for low-tech firms, implying that ICT may substitute for routine tasks domestically. There are different channels through which offshoring may generate productivity gains. For example, static efficiency gains may arise when firms focus on their core competencies and offshore their non-core activities. By interacting with foreign suppliers, offshoring firms may benefit from learning externalities. Offshoring may also raise productivity if the imported input varieties are of higher quality or better match with the needs of the firm. The existing literature provides some evidence that offshoring can increase productivity, but the identified effects are quite heterogeneous depending on the context of country, the type of firms or the type of offshored inputs (materials or services) (McCann, 2011; Schwo¨rer, 2013). In this study, we will control for the endogeneity of offshoring by using the propensity score matching techniques. The purposes of this study are twofold. First, we examine the adoption of ICT on the propensity of offshoring (or foreign outsourcing). Second, we evaluate the impact of production/service fragmentation on firm performance (eg, productivity, innovation and employment). The data we use include the 2006 and 2011 Manufacturing Census, the panel structure of electronics firms, and the datasets on linking the censuses with two Community Innovation Surveys. The subjects of interest are widely discussed in the developed countries, while evidence from developing countries is relatively scant. The findings in this study would provide important implications on business strategies and the relevant industrial and innovation policies.
    Relation: 財團法人國家實驗研究院科技政策研究與資訊中心
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟研究所] 研究計畫

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