English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 66984/66984 (100%)
Visitors : 23036219      Online Users : 476
RC Version 7.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version


    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/80295


    Title: 張載泯合現象與本體的認識論
    Authors: 曾志偉;Woei, Tzeng-Jhy
    Contributors: 中國文學系
    Keywords: 現象;表象;本體;無無;盡性;phenomena;representation;ontology;nothing;exhaustive
    Date: 2019-08-21
    Issue Date: 2019-09-03 12:29:09 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 張載泯合現象與本體的認識論

    提 要
    張載云:「太虛無形,氣之本體,其聚其散,變化之客形爾。」太虛中一切「物」無不透過二氣聚合而構成,而氣有聚散,所以「物」有「變化」,一切「物」的存在皆只不過是太虛中的「客形」而已。所云「客」者,暫時而有限之意。而人類存在於太虛當中亦透過氣聚,所以人類亦太虛中之「一物」,其感官、精神及意識自當亦為有限。因此,當主體有限的「客感」接於客體有限的「客形」時,此「物交之客感」必然在理論上被歸於「有限」。倘「物交之客感」為「有限」,則人類主體試圖以此有限之客感來掌握本體「無感無形」的超越存在,即成為不可能。此所以哲學上凡一切主客二元對立的認識論結構當中,「現象」與「本體」之間必然具有一種難以迴避的割裂。也即是說,在主、客體二元對立下,人類感官認識力絕無可能掌握現象背後物自身本體超越存在的全部訊息,感官下的「現象」永遠只能是一種「表象」,而難以觸及其背後無感無形之真正「本體」。
    儒、釋、道三家做為最高存在的本體在內容旨趣上雖有所不同,但上述無感無形的「本體」本質卻為三家所共同。此「本體」本質,既是存有論的,亦是認識論的,皆由不依待感官下的主客二元對立而自為存在,亦皆由本體無限性的強調,從而激化對立出現象及感官的有限性。基於這樣共通的本體「超越」性格,三教在理論上遂有滙於一塗的傾向,倘本體及認識理論滙於一塗,價值歸宿亦必滙於一塗,儒家成就於此岸的道德價值勢必轉向於以「空」、「無」為最高價值之彼岸,此乃為生當其時的張載所深惡痛絕。
    由此,張載在本體論上提出「太虛即氣」,透過二氣質料因絕對存在的肯定,從而證立道德之動力因及目的因亦為絕對存在。如此,其認識論中,感官所構成「表象」的本質非僅為「無無」(絕對真實之「有」),同時亦為「盡性」之道德本質。客感客形與無感無形同為「盡性」,「現象」與「本體」在本質上即得泯合為一,哲學上「現象與本體」的尖銳「對立關係」即得轉化成一種體現道德目的因多寡之程度上的「相對關係」。故此,人類感官在與太虛本體同為「盡性」的本質下,其有限性即得消泯,感官的本質即轉化成為「共見共聞之誠」而得為絕對真實,亦得為絕對道德,由此「得為」之潛力上的肯定為前提,再透過透過儒家「窮理盡性」工夫上的成德努力,聖人「窮神知化」之與天同位的至高境界即可能實現。
    ;Zhang Zai′s Phenomenon and Ontology Epistemology

    Summary
    Zhang Zai says: " tài xū have no shape, qì, its poly and bulk, shape change being the guest. In void ,everything was all through polymerization form èr qì, and qi is everywhere, so " shape "must be changed, the existence of all "things" is nothing but a "object shape" in the virtual world . The "guest" is temporarily and limited. Humanbeings are also a "object shape" of tài xū. Therefore, human beings are also "virtual" in their illusions. Their senses, spirit and consciousness are also limited. Therefore, when the "guest sense" of the subject is limited to the "object shape", the "objective feeling of the object" must be theoretically attributed to "limited". If the "objective feeling of the property" is "limited", then the human subject tries to grasp the transcendental existence of the "non-intangible" by the limited sense of the guest, that is, it becomes impossible. Therefore, in the philosophical structure of the binary opposition between the subject and the object, there must be an inevitable separation between the "phenomenon" and the "ontology". That is to say, under the binary opposition between the subject and the object, the human sensory cognition is impossible to grasp all the information that the object itself surpasses the existence of the phenomenon. The "phenomenon" under the sense can only be a kind of "representation", and it is difficult Touching the real "ontology" that is invisible behind it.
    Although the three main doctrines of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are different in content interest, the above-mentioned intangible "ontology" essence is shared by the three. The essence of this "ontology" is both existential and epistemological. It is self-existing by the binary opposition between the subject and the guest under the senses. It is also emphasized by the infinity of the ontology, thus intensifying the opposite appearance and sense. Limited. Based on the common "transcendence" character of the ontology, the three religions tend to have a tendency to merge in one theory. If the ontology and the theory of knowledge are combined, the value of the destination will also be merged into one, and the moral value of Confucianism on this shore. It is bound to turn to the other side with "emptiness" and "nothing" as the highest value. This is a deep hate for Zhang Zai.
    As a result, Zhang Zai put forward on the ontology theory that " tài xūjí qì ". Through the affirmation of the absolute existence of the èr qì materials, the motivation and purpose of the morality are also absolutely exist. Thus, in its epistemology, the essence of the "representation" formed by the senses is not only "nothing" (absolutely true " existence "), but also the moral essence of " jìn xìng." The guest object and the intangible invisible are both " jìn xìng ". The "phenomenon" and the "ontology" are essentially combined into one. The sharp "opposing relationship" between the philosophical "phenomenon and the ontology" is transformed into a kind of "relative relationship" that reflects the extent of moral purpose. Therefore, under the essence of the human senses and the "virtuality" of the Taixu body, its finiteness is eliminated, and the essence of the senses is transformed into " gòng jiàn gòng wén zhīchéng " and it is absolutely true. Absolute morality is the premise of the affirmation of the potential of "being", and through the efforts of Chengde through the Confucian " qióng lǐ jìn xìng " work, the supreme realm of the sage " qióng shén zhī huà " and the heavenly identities is possible .
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學研究所] 博碩士論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    index.html0KbHTML16View/Open


    All items in NCUIR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    ::: Copyright National Central University. | 國立中央大學圖書館版權所有 | 收藏本站 | 設為首頁 | 最佳瀏覽畫面: 1024*768 | 建站日期:8-24-2009 :::
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback  - 隱私權政策聲明