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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/80718


    Title: 初級客語認證試題分析 ─以四縣腔96~100年為例;nono
    Authors: 徐文達;TA, HSU WEN
    Contributors: 客家語文暨社會科學學系客家研究碩士在職專班
    Keywords: 客家語;客語認證;客語能力指標;口語表達能力;視覺理解能力;聽覺理解能力;Hakka;Hakka certification;Hakka competence indicator;oral communication ability;visual comprehension;listening comprehension
    Date: 2019-08-21
    Issue Date: 2019-09-03 15:01:07 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 摘要
    客家語言在其他強勢文化長期擠壓與同化之下,喪失其應有的社會教化功能,逐漸產生萎縮及隱形的現象,現今能使用流利客語溝通的客家人越來越少,引發新一代客家族群的認同危機,基於這樣的認同,客委會積極推動「客語家庭、客語生活學校、客語初級認證考試、客語中級暨中高級認證考試、幼幼客語闖通關」等,通過中高級認證人員,再由縣市主管機關舉辦客語教學支援人員認證合格者,得於國民中小學擔任客語教學工作,來增強客語證照實質效益。
    本論文針對客委會96~100年初級客語認證試題,依據陳秀琪〈客家語語言能力認證各級整體能力指標〉,檢視96~100年初級客語認證筆試及口試兩大類型試題的命題方向與難易度。本論文前兩章敘述研究動機、目的、客語認證的背景,以及華語文能力指標、中國大陸HSK漢語水平測驗能力指標、美國ACTFL能力指標、加拿大CLB能力指標、歐盟CEFR架構能力指標。第三章進行客語認證試題的分析,依據陳秀琪〈客家語語言能力認證各級整體能力指標〉之口語表達能力、聽覺理解能力及視覺理解能力,來檢視分析認證試題。本論文用視覺理解能力指標檢視筆試「是非題、選擇題、填充題」,彙整出「能理解日常生活或工作有關的熟悉主題」出題率最高,其次是「能理解描述個人基礎生活常用的簡短語句」,顯見出題者著重在日常生活或工作有關及個人基礎生活常用的簡短語句。用「聽覺理解能力指標」分析口試「客語轉換華語及聽力測驗」試題,彙整出「能在語速較慢、語音清晰的條件下,理解與切身相關的句子及表達用語」,其次是「能大致了解緩慢清晰的談論主題」;用口語表達能力指標來分析「華語轉換客語」試題,觀察到「能以簡單的句子描述人物、生活、工作、好惡等」出題率最高,其次是「能簡單的形容人物、地點及物品」。由以上觀察,了解與切身相關的表達用語,對人物、生活、工作、好惡等,為出題重點,缺乏資訊、廣告、交通、電子郵件等相關試題。
    第四章進行客語認證試題詞彙難易度檢視,經檢視各年度試題,筆者發現認證試題測驗詞彙能力的出題佔比太高,即使考生都將詞彙完全的背熟,也無法測驗出考生是否具備客語口說的能力,是否能在日常生活中以客語對話,這是值得客委會深思的議題。另有部分試題中的詞彙超出「客語能力認證基本詞彙-初級」,此類試題就算受試者不會做答,並不表示受試者不具備客語初級能力。另有部分認證試題測驗諺語、師傅話或節氣等內容,為較不適當的命題內容,因語言認證測驗的是語言能力,而非測驗客家諺語、師傅話的能力。第五章對本論文的研究做了總結並提出未來展望,建議客語能力認證以獎勵為手段,鼓勵年輕人參與,藉此達到學會客語的目的。客語能力認證- 初級認證歸屬教育學習場域,由專業學術機構來負責執行,從客語能力指標的制定到詞彙分級、數位認證題庫的建置,都能符合國際語言認證的標準化模式,讓客語能力認證制度更趨完整。也希望客委會在公共場所增設客語標示,如餐廳用客語菜單、客家產品標註客語,各公共場所公事客語的使用,在日常生活中出現多一點的客語標示或語音,相信對認識客語有正面幫助。讓通過認證者可做為升學加分或就業的參考,未通過者也在準備過程提升其客語能力,這應是客語能力認證最終目的。

    關鍵字:客家語 、 客語認證 、 客語能力指標 、 口語表達能力 、 視覺理解能力
    聽覺理解能力
    ;Abstract
    The Hakka language has been marginalized and assimilated by other powerful culture for long and lost the social educational function it should have, gradually leading to the phenomenon of recession and invisibility. At present, there are fewer and fewer Hakka people who can communicate fluently in Hakka, which causes the identity crisis of the new generation. Based on such identification, Hakka Affairs Council has actively promoted “Hakka family, Hakka life school, basic level Hakka Proficiency Test, intermediate and high-intermediate level Hakka Proficiency Test, and Children’s Hakka Evaluation Game.” Those who pass the high-intermediate level test and get the certificate of the Hakka teaching support personnel issued by the county or city competent authority are allowed to engage in the Hakka teaching in junior high schools and elementary schools to enhance the practical efficacy of the Hakka certificates.
    Based on Chen Siu-ki’s “Competence Indicators of the Hakka Language Proficiency Certification,” this paper aims to examine the exam setting and difficulty of the two major categories, written exam and oral exam, of the basic level Hakka Proficiency Test given by Hakka Affairs Council, from 2007 to 2011. The first two chapters of the paper deal with the research motives and objectives, background of the Hakka certification, as well as Chinese Competence Indicators, the competence indicators of HSK, ACTFL, CLB, and CEFR. The third chapter analyzes the questions of the Hakka certification and examines the questions in terms of the oral expression ability, listening comprehension, and visual comprehension in Chen Siu-ki’s “Competence Indicators of the Hakka Language Proficiency Certification.” This paper examines the “true-and false, multiple choice, and cloze test” of the written exam with the visual comprehension competence indicators and summarize that the indicator “being able to understand the familiar subjects on daily life or work” accounts for the largest part of the questions. What comes second is the indicator “being able to understand the basic common short sentences used in personal life.” It is evident that the examiners put emphasis on the short sentences concerning daily life, work, and personal life. The “listening comprehension competence indicators” are applied to analyze the questions in the oral exam “Translate Hakka into Chinese and Listening Test” and summarize the first indicator “being able to understand the sentences and expressions related to personal experience on the condition of low speed and clear pronunciation and the second indicator “being able to have a general understanding of the topics being discussed slowly and clearly.” The oral expression competence indicators are applied to analyze the questions of “Translate Chinese into Hakka.” It can be observed that the indicator “being able to describe the figures, life, work, likes and dislikes with the simple sentences” accounts for the largest part. The second is “being able to make a simple description of figures, location, and objects.” According to the above observation, the points of exam setting include understanding the expressions related to personal experience, figures, life, work, likes and dislikes. However, there is a shortage of the questions related to the topics of information, advertisement, transportation, and email.
    Chapter Four examines the difficulty of the vocabulary in the Hakka proficiency certification. After examining the tests of each year, I have found that the percentage of the vocabulary ability test is too high. Even though the examinees memorize all the vocabulary, it doesn’t mean they are equipped with the oral ability and able to converse in Hakka in daily life. This is an issue worth pondering for Hakka Affairs Council. Besides, some of the vocabulary in the tests is above the basic level of the Hakka proficiency certification. If the examinees can’t answer these questions, it doesn’t mean that they are not equipped with the basic Hakka ability. There are still some questions about proverbs, Hakka master’s proverbs, or solar terms. They belong to the improper setting because what should be tested in the language certification is the language ability rather than the ability on Hakka proverbs and Hakka master’s proverbs. Chapter Five makes a conclusion of the research and proposes the future prospect and suggestion that the Hakka certification should encourage the young people’s participation by means of giving rewards to achieve the goal of learning Hakka. In the educational and learning field of Hakka Proficiency Certification-Basic, the professional academic institute should take charge. From drawing up the Hakka competence indicators, vocabulary grading, to establishing the digital certification question database, all should meet the standard of the international language certification so that the Hakka proficiency certification system will be complete. It is also hoped that Hakka Affairs Council will add the Hakka signs in public places, such as the Hakka menus used in restaurants, Hakka products with the Hakka marks, and the Hakka language used in public places and businesses. If there are more Hakka signs or speech sounds appearing in daily life, it is believed to have a positive effect on the understanding of Hakka. Those who pass the proficiency tests will be given the advantage for further studies or employment; those who fail will also upgrade their Hakka ability during the preparation. This should be the ultimate goal of the Hakka proficiency certification.
    Keyword:Hakka, Hakka certification, Hakka competence indicator, oral communication ability, visual comprehension, listening comprehension
    Appears in Collections:[客家研究碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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