|Abstract: ||本研究利用共同氣化處理技術探討漿紙污泥(Paper mill sludge)與廢車破碎殘餘物(Automobile shredder residue,ASR)，在控制當量比(equivalence ratio,ER)、氣化溫度(700 ℃)、廢車破碎殘餘物摻混比例(0%~ 15%)等條件下，漿紙污泥與廢車破碎殘餘物共同氣化反應過程，合成氣及產氣組成特性、產物分佈特性、產能效率及重金屬排放分布特性之影響。此外，本研究於相同之控制條件下，將氣化試驗擴大規模至實廠規模，探討實廠漿紙污泥與廢車破碎殘餘物共同氣化反應過程，合成氣及產氣組成特性、產物分佈特性、產能效率及重金屬排放分布特性之影響，並針對氣化試驗產生之氣相污染物進行戴奧辛特性分析。|
根據實驗室規模漿紙污泥與廢車破碎殘餘物共同氣化反應結果顯示，廢車破碎殘餘物比例為10%時，氫氣、一氧化碳比例分別為4.91 vol.%及2.06 vol.%，而添加廢車破碎殘餘物比例增加至15%，前述產氣組成分別增加為4.80 vol.% 及2.62 vol.%。在穩定階段之產氣平均熱值，添加ASR比例從10%增加至15%，氣體平均熱值從1.93 MJ/Nm3增加至2.50 MJ/Nm3，冷燃氣效率從22.67 %增加至37.81 %，根據能源轉換之結果，添加ASR比例增加，有助於共同氣化之產能效率。根據實廠規模漿紙污泥與廢車破碎殘餘物共同氣化反應結果顯示，添加比例為5% ASR時，一氧化碳及甲烷組成比例分別為2.99 vol.%及1.79 vol.%，添加ASR比例增加至15%，一氧化碳及甲烷分別增加為3.45 vol.%及 2.10 vol.%。氣體平均熱值隨著添加ASR比例增加，從1.64 MJ/Nm3增加至1.83 MJ/Nm3，冷燃氣效率從0.17 %增加至0.29 %。添加ASR比例增加，有助於熱值增加，其中添加10% ASR條件為最佳，氣體平均熱值為1.83 MJ/Nm3，冷燃氣效率為0.29 %。氣化反應過程之重金屬分布特性結果，實驗室與實廠規模之試驗結果顯示，添加廢車破碎殘餘物比例增加，固體殘餘物之Cu、Zn及Cr等重金屬含量隨之增加。此外，揮發溫度較高之金屬(如Cu、Cr等)，主要分布於固體產物，分布比例均為98 %以上。
根據氣化過程氯排放特性結果顯示，氣化實驗室規模添加0%ASR，固相及液相產物中氯含量分布，分別為85.61%及14.39%，而增加10%ASR之試驗結果顯示，固相、液相及氣相產物中氯含量分布，分別為57.55%、32.12%及10.33%。添加ASR比例增加，漿紙污泥之吸附能力降低，造成固相氯含量降低。實廠規模之氯分佈特性結果顯示，添加0~15%ASR比例，氯含量主要分佈於固相當中，均約為98%以上。此外，根據戴奧辛毒性當量濃度分析結果，氣化爐之濃度較高，約為6.129ng-TEQ /Nm3，經由空污防制設備處理後，於燃燒爐及煙囪採集其排放之氣體，皆符合法規標準(0.5 ng-TEQ/Nm3)，初步驗證漿紙污泥與廢車破碎殘餘物實廠共同氣化試驗之可行性。
;This research investigates that automobile shredder residue (ASR) and paper mill sludge converted into energy by co gasification with controlling at equilibrium ratio (ER), temperature (700 ℃), and ASR amended ratio (0%~15%) in lab scale and full scale gasifier. The producer gas composition, product distribution, energy yield efficiency, pollutants (heavy metal and chlorine) partitioning characterization, and dioxin characteristics analysis were all evaluated.
In the case of co gasification of 10% ASR mixed paper mill sludge, the H2 and CO composition were 4.91 vol.% and 2.06 vol.%, respectively. With 15 %ASR amended ratio, the H2 and CO composition were varied to 4.80 vol.% and 2.62 vol.%, respectively. The average heat value of syngas increased from 1.93 MJ/Nm3 to 2.50 MJ/Nm3 with an increase in ASR addition from 10% to 15% as well as the cold gas efficiency (CGE) increased from 22.67 % to 37.81 %.Based on energy conversion results,increasing the ASR amended ratio, it could enhance the energy yield efficiency in co-gasification of ASR and paper mill sludge.According to the a full scale gasifier, the H2 and CH4 production were increased from 2.99 vol.% to 3.45 vol.% and from 1.79 vol.% to 2.10 vol.% with an increase in ASR addition ratio from 5 % to 15 %, respectively. The heating value of gas production was increased from 1.64 MJ/Nm3 to 1.83 MJ/Nm3 with ASR addition ratio increasing from 5 % to 15 %. Cold gas efficiency (CGE) was also increased from 0.17 % to 0.29 % with an increase in ASR addition ratio. By increasing ASR addition ratio, it could enhance the heating value in co-gasification, especially for 10% ASR addition ratio. The average heating value of gas production was 1.83 MJ/Nm3 and the CGE was 0.29 %.
The heavy metal partitioning characteristics results indicated that Cu, Zn and Cr were mainly partitioned in residue phase during the lab-scale and full-scale gasification. The Cu, Zn and Cr partitioning percentages of residue phase were increased with increasing ASR amended ratio. On the other hand, the.low volatility heavy metals, such as Cu and Cr. Cu and Cr were mainly partitioned in residue phase and were approximately 98 % and above.
According to the results of the chlorine emission characteristics, in the case of without ASR addition ratio, the chlorine partitioned in the solid phase and liquid phase were 85.61 % and 14.39 %, respectively. However, in the case of 10% ASR addition amended ratio, the chlorine in the solid phase and liquid phase were decreased to 57.55 % and 32.12 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the chlorine partitoned in the gas phase was significantly increased from N.D to 10.33 % with an increase in ASR addition ratio. This was because increasing ASR addition ratio resulted in the paper mill sludge containing calcium content decreased. In case of the full-scale test, the chlorine were approximately 98 % partitioned in solid.
According to analysis results of dioxin equivalence concentration of produced gas, the dioxin concentration of syngas was 6.129 ng-TEQ /Nm3 in the gasifier that had high concentration than other facilities. After air pollution control devices (APCDs), the dioxin equivalence concentration of the flue gas sampled from combustion furnace and stack were all in compliance with regulatory thresholds (0.5 ng-TEQ/Nm3). Therefore, the feasibility of co-gasified ASR and paper mill sludge was proved by full scale plant,.
In summary, the research has proved the ASR could co-gasify paper mill sludge. It could enhance the energy conversion from co-gasification, but also could reduce air pollutants emission during co-gasification process. Therefore, the results of this study could provide the helpful information for the selection of ASR energy conversion technologies and control strategies of pollutants emission in the future.