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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/84341


    Title: 1959年廬山會議之研究── 以「彭德懷事件」為中心;1959 Lushan Conference: A Focus on Peng Dehuai’s Antiparty Actions
    Authors: 葉乃菁;Ye, Nai-jing
    Contributors: 歷史研究所
    Keywords: 毛澤東;彭德懷;大躍進;反右傾;個人崇拜;Mao Zedong;Peng Dehuai;Great Leap Forward;anti-rightist tendency;cult of personality
    Date: 2020-07-28
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 19:07:08 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 1959年廬山會議召開的目的,原是中共中央發現自從毛澤東發動大躍進、人民公社以來,造成全國各地產生諸多重大問題,為了糾「左」,所做的總結性會議。然因為毛澤東對當時的形勢保持樂觀,且堅持捍衛三面紅期的情況下,糾「左」並不徹底。會議期間,彭德懷多次的發言並上書毛澤東,直言不諱地指出了大躍進、人民公社引發的諸多問題,引發毛澤東的不滿,促使毛澤東展開反擊,並將之提升為路線與階級的鬥爭。導致彭德懷、黃克誠、張聞天、周小舟等人被打為「反黨集團」,造成廬山會議由糾「左」變成反右,終致釀成悲劇。
    廬山會議逆轉的原因極其複雜,在國際因素方面有中蘇關係分歧、毛澤東對赫魯曉夫不滿及國外批評大躍進、人民公社的言論,使毛澤東錯誤連結彭德懷與赫魯曉夫的關係等;國內因素則有毛澤東與彭德懷兩人對形勢看法及思想上出現分歧、毛澤東懷疑彭德懷寫信的動機、毛澤東與彭德懷兩人之間的歷史恩怨、對毛澤東的個人崇拜及擁毛勢力的推動等。廬山會議後,反右傾鬥爭擴大化,持續躍進的結果,造成「三年困難期」的大饑荒,並且在強化對毛澤東個人崇拜的情況下,間接導致文化大革命,給中國帶來嚴重的災難與影響。
    ;The Lushan Conference in 1959 was a wrap-up meeting convened by the central government of Communist China with the attempt to contain the excessive leftist tendency, which has caused various major problems across the country since the beginning of Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward campaign and People’s commune. However, this attempt was not quite successful due to Mao’s optimistic view of the situation then and persistent adherence to the Three Red Banners. During the conference, Peng Dehuai made various statements, evenly through a letter addressed to Mao, about the many problems caused by the Great Leap Forward and People’s commune. Mao, displeased by these statements, decided to retaliate and made it—to a higher level—a conflict of political views and classes. This action of Mao rendered Peng Dehuai, Huang Kecheng, Zhang Wentian, and Zhou Xiaozhou an antiparty group. At that point, the Lushan Conference, despite its original aim of containing leftist views, turned into an antirightist movement and ultimately into a tragedy.
    Such a turning point in the Lushan Conference was attributable to complex reasons. On the international aspect, the Sino–Soviet split, Mao’s dissatisfaction with Nikita Khrushchev, and the international criticism of the Great Leap Forward and People’s commune led Mao to falsely assume that Peng was associated with Khrushchev. Within the country, the reasons included the conflict between Mao and Peng in opinions on the political dynamics, Mao’s suspicion toward Peng’s motives in writing the letter, historical grudges between Mao and Peng, the cult of personality of Mao, and the pro-Mao movement. After the Lushan Conference, the escalating anti-rightist-tendency conflicts and the continuing leap-forward implementation resulted in a large-scale famine later termed as the Great Chinese Famine. The growing cult of personality of Mao has also led indirectly to the Cultural Revolution, bringing catastrophes and detrimental consequences to China.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史研究所] 博碩士論文

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