Kevlar 149 fibers were surface-modified by NH3, O2, and H2O plasmas to improve the adhesion to epoxy resin. Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) film prepared from Kevlar 149 fibers was also modified to estimate the changes in surface energy caused by the plasma treatments. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between the fiber and epoxy resin was measured by the microbond pull-out test. The fracture surfaces of microbond pull-out specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify the failure mode of the microcomposites. The results showed that the IFSS of the Kevlar 149 fiber/epoxy resin system was remarkably improved (up to a factor of 2.42) by these plasma treatments and the treatment time was the governing factor in improving the IFSS. After the plasma treatments, the fracture mode of the microcomposites changed from failure at the interface to failure either in the fiber skin or in the epoxy resin. The surface free energy and the work of adhesion of water on the PPTA surface were markedly improved by the plasma treatments. The polar component of the surface free energy and the acid-base (non-dispersion) component of the work of adhesion made an important contribution to the improvement. Some correlations between the IFSS and the surface energies were found.