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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/82801

    Title: 莫泊桑短篇小說中的動物與動物性;L′animal et l′animalité dans les nouvelles de Maupassant
    Authors: 周欣葵;Chou, Shin-Kuei
    Contributors: 法國語文學系
    Keywords: 莫泊桑;短篇小說;動物;動物性;人性;Guy de Maupassant;Short Stories;Animal;Animality;Humanity
    Date: 2020-01-21
    Issue Date: 2020-06-05 17:14:20 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 中文摘要

    莫泊桑的短篇小說中,許多主題皆圍繞著狩獵活動與鄉村生活。我們可以發現在這些場景裡出現為數眾多的動物。在第一章中,我們將探討這些動物在景色描繪,以及在敘事發展上所扮演的角色。當動物作為主角或配角時,總不免和人類產生互動,進而發展出多樣的關係,然而最終似乎都注定了動物的苦難。莫泊桑透過賦予其筆下動物悲劇性的角色,來反思人類的暴力。在第二章裡,我們聚焦於以動物遭人類虐待為主題的短篇小說。在這些作品中,莫泊桑經常人性化這些受害的動物來突顯人類摧毀性的力量。人無情地殘殺如人一般的動物,彷彿同類相殘。事實上,莫泊桑除了將動物人性化(humanisation des animaux),同時也將人類動物化(animalisation des hommes)。人性(humanité)與動物性(animalité)之間的分界也因而變得模糊。在第三章中,研究重心將置放在這些被動物化的人物身上。人類無疑是動物界的一員,永遠無法抹滅承襲自動物祖先的動物性,即使身處現代社會的我們都隱藏著原始的獸性本質(bête humaine)。但若是絕對地臣服於其動物性中的本能(instinct)與欲力(pulsion),人與人之間的關係將會趨於暴力。受制其本能或欲力,人類殘殺同類來滿足自身的暴力傾向。但為了合理化對受害者的掠奪行為,侵略者往往藉由去人性化(déshumanisation)來貶低對方的價值,並且強調本身的種族優越性。莫泊桑利用去人性化再次區別了人和其他動物,因為人類的暴力是蓄意的,與其他物種間為求生存的捕獵行為明顯截然不同。

    In the short stories of Maupassant, lots of themes turn around the hunting and country life. We can find the presence of numerous animals in these scenes. In the first chapter, we will study the function and role of these animals in the description and narration. When the animal is a leading or supporting role, it inevitably develops many kinds of relationships with humans, but from the very beginning, they seem to be destined for misery. Apparently, Maupassant reflects on human violence by giving his animals a miserable destiny. Therefore, in the second chapter, we will study the stories centered on the suffering of animals imposed by men. In these works, Maupassant often humanizes those animals that are mistreated by men. They brutalise animals as if they brutalise their fellow men. Curiously, these tortured animals become more human. In fact, in addition to the humanization of animals, Maupassant also animalizes his characters so as to blur the distinction between humanity and animality. In the third chapter, our research analyses these animalized characters. Man is classified as mammal and conserves the animal characteristics he inherits from his wild ancestors. Without doubt, the beast lives inside all of us. But if man absolutely submits to his instinct and drive that constitute animal nature, the human relationship will become brutal. Human race subjects to instinct or drive, so much so that he kills his own kind to satisfy his aggressive tendencies. However, in order to justify his violent act, the aggressor often devalues the other’s value and emphasizes his racial superiority through dehumanization. Maupassant uses the dehumanization to distinguish people from other animals. Human violence is deliberate and extreme. It is completely different from hunting behaviour of animals which is a struggle for existence and survival.
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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